Latitude and Longitude Unit 2 Mapping Latitude and

• Slides: 39

Latitude and Longitude

Unit 2: Mapping Latitude and Longitude Field Maps Topographic Maps NYS Landscapes Quadrangle Maps

Latitude and Longitude �How to find a location on earth’s surface

Latitude and Longitude �Map – a projection that shows all parts of earth’s surface

Latitude and Longitude � Latitude equator – measuring lines running parallel to the �Also called parallels �These lines NEVER intersect!! � Equator – main reference line of Latitude (0˚ latitude)

Latitude and Longitude �North Pole is at 90˚ N Latitude �South Pole is at 90˚ S Latitude

Latitude and Longitude �Finding your latitude: • The altitude (angle) of Polaris (the north star) is equal to your latitude. �Polaris can only be seen in the Northern Hemisphere. Polaris α Horizon α = angle from the horizon to Polaris

Latitude and Longitude � Longitude – measuring lines that run east and west from the Prime Meridian • Longitude lines are also called meridians � Prime Meridian – main reference line of longitude (0˚ Longitude)

Latitude and Longitude �Prime Meridian is 0˚ longitude �The International Date Line is on the opposite side of the Prime Meridian and is 180˚ east OR west

Latitude and Longitude �Combine latitude and longitude to create a grid system

Latitude and Longitude �Make sure you include direction with both latitude and longitude • Example: 20˚ 30’ N, 75˚ 30’ E �Subdivisions of latitude and Longitude: • One degree is divided into 60 minutes (60’) • One minute can be broken down into 60 seconds (60”)

Latitude and Longitude

Latitude and Longitude �Time Zones: • Rotation of the earth provides a basis for our system of local time • The earth rotates 360˚ in 24 hours • Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at 15˚ per hour • Earth is divided into 24 (15˚) time zones

Latitude and Longitude �Time zones (continued) • Each time zone is one hour different • Each time zone covers 15˚ of “meridians of longitude” on the Earth’s surface ˚ • There are 6 time zones in the United States

Field Maps �What are the different types of field maps?

Field Maps �Field – a region with a measurable quantity at every location • Examples: temperature values, elevation, ˚ depth, atmospheric pressure, pollution levels, and wind speeds

Field Maps �Isolines- are lines that are drawn on a field map to collect all of the points on that map that have the same value ˚ • Examples: isotherms and contour lines

Field Maps �Points represent values of data found at a specific location • This map shows amounts of pollutants found in the ground water at different locations ˚

Field Maps �To construct a field map connect the points of equal data • This example is a water pollution field map with the 40 parts per million isoline drawn ˚

Field Maps �Isolines- usually do no connect every value, rather whole numbers • This is an example of isolines drawn in at an interval of 10 ppm ˚

Field Maps � Isotherm- are lines drawn in on a map that connect points of equal temperature ˚

Field Maps � ˚

Field Maps � ˚

Topographic Maps �How do topographic maps help us interpret our planet?

Topographic Maps �BM. X. indicates a benchmark • The X is the exact location of a spot where a metal marker is in the ground indicating the latitude, longitude, and elevation

Topographic Maps �Depression contours - are marked with small lines called hachure lines that are pointed toward the center of a depression • This allows you to distinguish a hill from a hole

Topographic Maps

Topographic Maps �Calculating the highest point: 1. Find the last (highest) contour line on that hill 2. Imagine you drew another line 3. Subtract one from the imaginary line

Topographic Maps � The highest possible elevation of the hill is 239 meters

Topographic Maps �Contour line rules: 1. Contour lines close around hills, basins, and depressions 2. Contour lines never cross 3. Contour lines form V’s that point upstream whenever crossing a stream

Topographic Maps �Topographic profile: the side view of a mountain, hill, or depression

Topographic Maps �Creating a profile: • Step 1: You need two points on a topographic map

Topographic Maps �Creating a profile: • Step 2: You need a horizontal grid between two points

Topographic Maps �Creating a profile: • Step 3: Transfer points from the contour map to the horizontal grid

Topographic Maps �Creating a profile: • Step 4: connect the points with a smooth line to draw the profile

Topographic Maps � Final product: a cross section of the landscape

Topographic Maps � With more complex proﬁles you may need to transfer the elevation information to the side of a piece of paper and then transfer it to your horizontal grid ˚

Topographic Maps

NYS Landscape Regions �What are the different landscapes of New York?