- Slides: 29
Latitude and Longitude Latitude: measures distance north and south of Equator; lines stretch east—west. Longitude: measures distance east and west of the Prime Meridian; lines stretch north—south. The Prime Meridian bisects which European city?
Georgia Facts Western and Northern Hemispheres North America (Continent) United States (Country) Southeast (Region) Georgia (State) “Empire State of the South” Gwinnett (County) Suwanee (Town) Address 2100 Old Peachtree Sectionalism: Neighborhoods Physical/Cultural Global/Geographic Mason-Dixon Line Named after surveyors Deep South/Confederacy
Georgia Facts #2 Largest state EAST of the Mississippi River 21 st largest state U. S. Highest Point: Brasstown Bald Lowest Point: Coastline 159 Counties Largest—Ware Smallest—Clarke Center—Twiggs
Georgia Facts #3 North: Tennessee and North Carolina South: Florida and St. Mary’s River East: Atlantic Ocean, South Carolina, and Savannah River West: Alabama, Chattahoochee River
6 Basic Regions Also known as “Physiographic Regions” Appalachian Plateau Ridge and Valley Blue Ridge Piedmont Region Upper/ Inner Coastal Plain Lower / Outer Coastal Plain
Coastal Plains Fall line is northern boundary, Atlantic Ocean is southeastern boundary Largest region (60% of GA below the Fall Line) Inner (Northern) Agricultural- clay, sand limestone soil Vidalia Upland FLAT, No hills Peanuts, peaches, pecans, cotton Outer (Southern) Coastal Swamp/Marsh Okefenokee Swamp Barrier Islands: “Golden Isles” Protect beaches Continental Shelf: Protects our coast from hurricanes
Coastal Plains II Prehistoric ocean extended to the Fall Line Fossils of shark teeth, whale bones and various ocean life found in Coastal Plains – phosphate, limestone bauxite
Coastal Plains 75 miles from coast line inland is known as “The Pine Barrens” Hardly anything except pine trees grows in this region!
Coastal Plains Swamps rivers, streams, estuaries, and islands. Slow, meandering, widening rivers Tidal rivers along coastline…saltwater and freshwater share areas during the tides as far as 10 miles inland.
Coastal Plains Coastal wetlands… Okeefenokee Swamp TEMPERATURE- averages 54°- 77°
Coastal Plain Includes the Barrier Islands Also called The Golden Isles
Wassaw: Considered the most pristine island in the Georgia chain. Ossabaw: is unique in that it is two islands in one. St. Catherines: When the Spanish came to Georgia in 1566, they selected St. Catherines as the location for their first mission. Blackbeard: Legend has it, Blackbeard Island was once the hide-a-way of the most infamous and feared pirate of the 18 th century. Sapelo: is home to Hog Hammock, the last intact Geechee community on the Georgia coast. Their roots grow deep here, all the way back to the cotton fields their ancestors worked as slaves, 200 years ago. Wolf, Egg, Little Egg In 1930, Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge was established to protect three islands, Little St. Simons: Little St. Simons is Georgia’s only remaining family owned island. Sea Island: is internationally recognized for its resort hotel, The Cloister. St. Simons is a bustling community and resort, joined to the mainland by a causeway. Jekyll: Jekyll Island was once the playground of northern millionaires who used it as a winter retreat.
Typical scenes at Jekyll Island
Georgia's southern most barrier island home to Cumberland's wild horses brought by the Spanish in the sixteenth century. Cumberland is under the care of the National Park Service. Typical scenes at Cumberland Island
Coastal Plain Is south of the fall line Flat: no more waterfalls! Okefenokee Swamp Salt Marshes & estuaries Wildlife refuges Sedimentary rock Beaches and barrier islands Gray’s Reef marine sanctuary
Coastal Plain Savannah, Valdosta and Jekyll Providence Canyon Altamaha River Cypress, live oak trees Palmetto plants Warmer climate Osprey and Skimmer: coastal birds Sea turtles
Providence Canyon Visitors are often amazed when they visit “Georgia’s Little Grand Canyon. ” The massive gullies, as deep as 150 feet, were caused by poor farming practices during the 1800 s.
Piedmont “Foot of the Mountains” -Over 50% of the states population, Cherokee County/Atlanta Located between the Coastal Plain and mountains of North GA Encompasses 30% of state’s area Gently sloping and rolling hills, streams, rivers lakes Business and Industry region Cotton, soybean, wheat, beef and dairy cattle, chicken… Georgia “Red Clay”, solid rockgranite, marble, mica Temperature: 57°-74° Atlanta skyline…The Capitol
Fall Line The fall line is the change in elevation from approximately the cities of Columbus thru Macon to Augusta Many early settlers stayed in this area because the surrounding waterfalls were difficult to travel over, and they provided a power supply.
Piedmont Region At foothills of Appalachians Rolling hills Mixed forests Metamorphic, igneous rock Chattahoochee River Etowah Indian Mounds Lake Lanier, Alltoona, and Oconee: Water supply & recreation!!!
Piedmont Region Includes Atlanta, Athens, Macon Rivers, lakes, waterfalls
North Georgia Appalachian Plateau, Ridge & Valley, Blue Ridge Very mountainous Beautiful leaf watching in the fall!
Ridge and Valley Northwest GA-between Blue Ridge and Appalachian Plateau Low open valleys and narrow, parallel ridges ”Wrinkles” Flat fertile farmlands Hardwood forest and pastures Corn soybeans, wheat, cotton The textile industry Industrial: textile and carpet manufacturing DALTON: “Carpet Capital of the World” Lots of Limestone Temperature- 48°-72°
Ridge and Valley Ridges up to 1600 ft. and lowlands to 700 ft. above sea level Chattahoochee Nat’l Forest River rafting (rivers flow downhill!) Dalton, GA: major city – famous for carpet manufacturing
Blue Ridge Located in Northeast GA Highest and largest group of mountains in Georgia , many rivers begin here Landmarks: Tallulah Gorge Beginning of the Appalachian Trail Brasstown Bald Mountains act as a barrier to keep warm, moist from the gulf causing precipitation Lots of rain sleet, snow, hail Short growing season- less than 1% farmland- Apples, corn, vegetables, and hardwood timber Mica, feldspar gold and marble found here! Temperature- 45°-69°
Blue Ridge Mountains, ridges and basins Up to 4700 ft. mountain peaks Cohutta and Blue Ridge mtns Appalachian trail Mountain lakes and waterfalls Beautiful views
Appalachian Plateau Smallest region FAR NW Ga. Lookout Mt. / Sand Mt. Most scenic but least traveled Called TAG Corner Tennessee Alabama Georgia Gentle slopes with mountains over valleys Hardwood forest, pastures for livestock, corn and soybean. Only known source of coal in Georgia. Iron Temperatures 49°-71°
Appalachian Plateau q. Sedimentary Rocks q. Sand Mountain q. Lookout Mountain: 7 states q. Cloudland Canyon q. Civil war sites q. Appalachian Oak forests q. Hiking and rivers