Latin Revolutions Although often overlooked Latin revolutions have
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Latin Revolutions Although often overlooked Latin revolutions have had a profound impact on the political and social make-up of the world as we know it.
Definition • Revolution, forcible and often violent change of a social or political order by a sizable segment of a country's population.
Revolution Does a revolution have to be violent? What is the difference between a revolution and a rebellion or coup d’ etat?
Background The French Revolution Enlightenment Colonial power in Latin America
Latin Revolutions General Facts: South America: Who: When: Why: How: Mexico: Who: Brazil: Who: When: Why:
Latin American Colonial Society Peninsulares- born in Spain Creoles- Spaniards or French born in Latin America. Often mixed race (European and African) Mulattos- Mixed European and African ancestry Mestizos –Mixed European and Indian ancestry Indians- Native Americans Europeans
Revolution in Haiti The vast majority of Saint Domingue’s population were enslaved Africans. In August of 1791 100, 000 slaves rose in revolt. Toussaint L’Ouverture emerged as the leader of the slave revolt. By 1801 L’Ouverture had control of the territory and freed the slaves.
Revolution in Haiti During the civil war that followed the Haitian slave uprising, British and Spanish forces invaded the French colony. Haitian leader Toussaint L'Ouverture defeated the European generals in battle, then ruled Haiti until 1802.
Revolution in Haiti 1802, 16, 000 French troops are sent by Napoleon to depose Toussaint and regain control of Haiti. Toussaint is double crossed by the French and imprisoned in 1802. He died in 1803
Revolution in Haiti Toussaint’s general Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued the fight against the French in 1804. He declared the colony an independent country.
What is the big deal? The revolution directly impacted the United States. Refugees from Haiti pored into Louisiana. These refugees from Saint-Domingue—white planters, mulatto artisans, and some African slaves—brought with them their language, religion, laws, newspapers, education, art, and their skills at growing sugar, all of which strongly influenced the culture of the lower South.
French Imperialism and the U. S. The French failure to regain control over Saint-Domingue also influenced Napoleon to abandon efforts to build an empire in the western hemisphere. In 1803 France sold its North American province of Louisiana.
Haitian Influence throughout South America Haiti was the 2 nd independent nation (free from European rule) What was the first? Haiti gave support to Simón Bolívar, leader of the movement for South American independence from Spain in the early 1800 s. In return, Bolivar made abolition of slavery one of the goals of his movement.
The End of Spanish Rule Napoleon’s conquest of Spain in 1808 spurs revolts throughout the Spanish colonies. Two brilliant generals emerged during these wars of independence, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin.
How did Enlightenment ideas spur on these Latin Revolutions? Bolivar visited Europe and then the new US, there he studied the US government and documents Liked the ideas of democracy and equality for all Bolivar visited London looking for support. There he found ideas from: John Locke, Thomas Paine, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire
Simon Bolivar Simón Bolívar helped win independence from Spain for Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Revered throughout South America, Bolívar earned the name The Liberator. He won Venezuela’s independence in 1821.
Jose de San Martin Argentine general José de San Martín helped lead South America to freedom from Spanish rule. San Martín is regarded as one of Argentina’s foremost heroes.
Bolivar and San Martin Met in 1822 (in modern day Ecuador) Bolivar took charge of both armies • San Martin left • Bolivar completed the liberation of Peru – Unknown of Bolivar angered San Martin and caused him to leave or if San Martin left knowing Bolivar was more capable.
Revolution in Mexico Indian and Mestizos led by Padre Hidalgo called for independence from Spain on Sept. 16, 1810. Spanish and Creole forces crushed the “unruly” rebels in 1811. Padre Jose Maria Morelos rose up in 1811 to continue the revolution. • In 1815 he was defeated by Agustin de Iturbide (a Creole man). In a strange change of events Iturbide – the man who defeated Morelos – proclaimed independence for Mexico in 1821. • Why were they ready for independence 11 years later?
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Helped Mexico gain independence from Spanish rule in 1821 Became President of Mexico four times from 1833 -1855 Fought the US in the 1830’s to regain control of Texas In 1848 he lost to the U. S. and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Santa Anna cont. Mexico lost a lot of land including California, Texas, and the present day New Mexico and Arizona area The Alamo, a famous site in San Antonio, Texas where Mexican forces defeated U. S. colonists
Benito Juarez A Zapotec Indian who became a powerful politician Led a reform movement, La Reforma Education and distributing land fairly were his goals Became President in 1861 Promoted trade, opened roads, and rail roads
The French The wealthy conservatives invited the French because leaders like Juarez threatened their power May 5, 1862, Mexico defeated the French at the Battle of Puebla- celebrated today as Cinco de Mayo But…Napolean III sent an army to Mexico and took control of Mexico in the 1863 Austrian archduke Maximilian ruled Mexico as emperor for a short time
Porfirio Diaz Gained power and ruled Mexico from 1867 -1911 He was an Indian from Oaxaca Built banks, stabilized the currency, and increased foreign investment The rich became wealthier and the poor became poorer Diaz worsened the conditions in Mexico, giving rise to revolution
Francisco Madero From a rich family and educated in the U. S. (UC Berkeley) Began the new Mexican Revolution with his push for a democratic government Was exiled into the U. S. by Diaz, then he called for an armed revolution allowing “Pancho” Villa and Zapata to gain power
Francisco “Pancho” Villa Popular figure from North Mexico Had qualities similar to “Robin-Hood” Fought and supported the poor and landless He was wanted by the U. S. for murdering U. S. citizens in Columbus, New Mexico
Emiliano Zapata Was the leader of a Southern army in Mexico Forced Diaz out of power in 1911 Supported the poor and wanted land redistribution
Venustiano Caranza Was supported by Villa and Zapata Became President after General Victoriano Huerta was removed from power He turned against Zapata and Villa and had Zapata murdered
Overview of the Mexican Revolution Over a million Mexicans died There was a constant power struggle between the leaders and dictators of Mexico The real revolution was fought between the rich, who controlled most of the land, and the poor, which was the majority of the population
The Mexican Constitution It broke up large sections of ownership Banned foreign ownership of land Established minimum wage Labor unions and the right to strike were established Gov. took over land owned by the Church Gov. took over natural resources
Brazil’s Battle for Independence Brazil had been a Portuguese Colony until the French conquest of Spain and Portugal. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815 the Portuguese government wanted to make Brazil, it’s largest former colony, part of the Portuguese empire.
1822, Creoles in Brazil demand independence from Portugal and petition for a new ruler. September 7, 1822 marks the official declaration of Brazilian independence. Independence was won through a bloodless revolution
Disunity What were some of the negative consequences of independence in Latin America? Increase in poverty Devastated countryside
Discuss Who has the right to govern-Colonial powers (ie: Spain) or the citizens?