Latin American Revolution Causes of the Latin American

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Latin American Revolution

Latin American Revolution

Causes of the Latin American Revolution v Problems with the Spanish Empire v Enlightenment

Causes of the Latin American Revolution v Problems with the Spanish Empire v Enlightenment Ideals v Successful Revolutions v American and French Revolutions v Nationalism and the desire for economic freedom

Discontent within the Spanish Empire v Spanish colonies were ran by the Council of

Discontent within the Spanish Empire v Spanish colonies were ran by the Council of the Indies, a group appointed by the King that met in Spain and sent its directives across the Atlantic. v Viceroys were officials appointed by Spain and they governed the colonies. v Restrictions were enforced that forbade Latin American countries to trade with countries other than Spain. v Spain also restricted Latin American countries’ ability to manufacture their own goods.

Enlightenment Ideals v Before: Kings were placed on the throne by God and only

Enlightenment Ideals v Before: Kings were placed on the throne by God and only God could remove them. v The government was based on a contract between the ruler and the ruled. v The government exists to protect the citizen’s natural rights of life, liberty, and property. v If the government violates the natural rights of the people, the citizens have a right to revolt against the tyranny.

Successful Revolutions v The American and French Revolutions spread the idea that people were

Successful Revolutions v The American and French Revolutions spread the idea that people were entitled to a government that protected their interests. v. The success of the American Revolution showed others that colonies could succeed in overthrowing their more powerful mother countries v. When Napoleon conquered Spain, he put his brother, Joseph, on the throne (1810). Latin American colonies were then able to govern themselves.

Nationalism v Nationalism: patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts. v There can be extreme forms

Nationalism v Nationalism: patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts. v There can be extreme forms of this, marked by feelings of superiority over other countries. v Advocacy of political independence for a particular country.

Social Hierarchy Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: People of pure European blood but were born

Social Hierarchy Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: People of pure European blood but were born in the New World Mestizos (Indian & European blood) and Mulattos (African & European blood) Native Americans and Africans

Revolutionary Leaders v. Toussaint L’ouverture (Haiti) v. Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, &

Revolutionary Leaders v. Toussaint L’ouverture (Haiti) v. Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia) v. Jose de San Martin (Argentina & Chile) v. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico)

Toussaint L’ouverture v. L’ouverture led an uprising of African slaves in 1791, forcing the

Toussaint L’ouverture v. L’ouverture led an uprising of African slaves in 1791, forcing the French out of Haiti. v. Haiti was the first Latin American colony to achieve independence.

Simon Bolivar v He was an elite creole planter turned military general. v He

Simon Bolivar v He was an elite creole planter turned military general. v He was nicknamed the “George Washington of South America” v Bolivar defeated Spanish forces between 1819 and 1825, and liberated territories in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

Jose de San Martin v He was a creole officer who had trained in

Jose de San Martin v He was a creole officer who had trained in European armies. v He liberated Argentina from Spanish control. v de San Martin met with Bolivar in 1822 to discuss the future of Peru. v Lima was the most important city of the Spanish colonies in South America, so it was imperative to determine the future of the city. v They couldn’t decide on what type of government to implement in Argentina: Bolivar favored democracy and de San Martin favored a monarchy. v After the conference, de San Martin turned over command to Bolivar.

Miguel Hidalgo v He was a highly educated creole priest in Dolores, Mexico. v

Miguel Hidalgo v He was a highly educated creole priest in Dolores, Mexico. v He began a rebellion against Spanish rule I Mexico in 1810, but the uprising failed. v. He called upon his mestizo and indigenous parishioners to take up arms against the Spanish. v. Hidalgo never made it to the capital. He was captured and shot in 1811. v. Mexico later achieved independence in 1821.

Monroe Doctrine v “The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for

Monroe Doctrine v “The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. ” –James Monroe, 1823. v. This states that the United States would oppose any attempt by Europeans to establish new colonies in the Americas.

Results v By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos. v.

Results v By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos. v. The upper classes still supported dictatorship. v. United States and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners. v. Their main exports were cash crops while importing manufactured goods. v Once the Spaniards were expelled, new governments appeared and sold the land. v. Only creoles could afford to buy it. v. This meant that creoles would replace peninsulares at the top of the social pyramid, while other classes remained in their same places.