Las teoras de la conspiracin Unos cuentos misteriosos
- Slides: 19
Las teorías de la conspiración Unos cuentos misteriosos
Funciones �Describir un cuento o una teoría de una conspiración. �Explicar lo que piensan personas sobre la conspiración. �Presentar información sobre la teoría y qué piensan Ustedes.
Estructuras �Cognates �Por and Para �Irregular Present tense verbs �The Subjunctive
Structure: Los cognados � English and Spanish Cognates are words in both languages that share the same Latin root and which are very similar. � It is important to bear in mind that these cognates do not always translate from one language to another precisely. � These cognates appear mainly in NOUNS, NOUNS ADJECTIVES, ADJECTIVES VERBS, VERBS ADVERBS
Los cognados: Nouns I � English nouns and Spanish nouns ending in '-or' are very often identical. � Actor color doctor director horror � English nouns and Spanish nouns ending in '-al' are very common identical. � General hospital manual moral animal � Many English nouns ending with '-ist', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ista'. � Artista egoísta lista socialista turista � English nouns ending with '-y' often correspond to Spanish nouns ending with '-ía', '-ia', or '-io'. Agencia agonía batería familia historia urgencia salario testimonio diccionario
Los cognados: Nouns II � Many English nouns ending with '-ism', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ismo'. � Idealismo despotismo mecanismo organismo optimismo � Many English nouns ending with '-nce', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ncia'. � Abundancia arrogancia experiencia paciencia � Many English nouns ending with '-ty', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-dad'. � Actividad curiosidad electricidad identidad � Many English nouns ending with '-tion', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ción'. Asociación combinación condición exempción
Los cognados: Adjectives � Like nouns, many English adjectives can be converted into Spanish simply by changing the word ending. Here are some useful rules. 1. -ive → ivo 2. -al = -al 3. -ous → -oso 4. -ic → -ico 5. -ble = -ble 6. -nt → -nte 7. -id → -ido 8. -ile → -il 9. -ary → -ario ACTIVE ACTIVO CRIMINAL DELICIOUS DELICIOSO FANTASTIC FANTÁSTICO TERRIBLE IMPORTANTE STUPID ESTÚPIDO FRAGILE FRÁGIL ORDINARY ORDINARIO
Los cognados: Verbs � Almost every English verb ending in '-ate' can be coverted into a Spanish infinitive by replacing the final '-ate' with '-ar'. � Operate = operar Participate = participar � Many English verbs ending in VOWEL + CONSONANT + T can be converted into Spanish verbs by adding '-ar' or '-ir' to the end of the English verb. present = presentar represent = representar comment = comentar insult = insultar
Los cognados: Verbs II � Many English infinitive verbs ending VOWEL + CONSONANT + E can be converted into Spanish infinitive verbs by dropping the final E and adding '- ar'. � Excuse = excusar admire = admirar adore =adorar � Almost every English infinitive verb ending with '- ify' can be converted into a Spanish verb by replacing the final '-ify' with '-ificar'. Justify = justificar pacify = pacificar verify = verificar
Los cognados: Adverbs � In English, "-ly" combines with many adjectives to form adverbs. � In Spanish, "-mente" combines with (feminine) adjectives to form Spanish adverbs. � Absolutely absolutamente � Normally normalmente � Naturally naturalmente � Finally finalmente � correctly correctamente � exactly exactamente � evidently evidentemente � Difficultly difícilmente
Structure: Uses of POR and PARA �“Por” and “para” are very confusing because they both mean “for. ” Uses of POR 1. In exchange for: Ill pay you for the toy. 2. Duration of time: I studied for 3 hours. 3. Rate: He charges $70 an hour! (for one hour). 4. Movement through space: …through the forest. 5. Motive/reason: I sang for my parents. 6. By means of: We travel by car. 7. Taking the place of: He is playing for me. 8. Before an infinitive meaning “because of” or “by”: � By practicing often, they learned a lot.
Structure: Uses of POR and PARA �“Por” and “para” are very confusing because they both mean “for. ” Uses of PARA 1. Destination: I am leaving for Florida. 2. Intended for (recipient): It’s for you. 3. Deadline: Send it in by tomorrow. 4. Purpose/use: The gun is for protection. 5. Exception: She is strong for a woman. 6. Before an infinitive meaning “in order to”: In order to win, you have to play. 7. Viewpoint: For me, this is the best school. � There are some verbs in Spanish where the “for” is built in: BUSCAR, ESPERAR, PEDIR, etc.
Structure: Irregular Verbs in the Present tense CABER (to fit) quepo/cabes/cabemos/caben CONSTRUIR (to construct)construyo/construyes/construye/construimos/construy en COGER (to grab)- cojo / coges / cogemos / cogen SABER (to know)- sé / sabes / sabemos / saben TENER (to have)tienen VER (to see)CAER (to fall)- tengo / tienes / tiene / tenemos / veo / ves / vemos / ven caigo / caes / caemos / caen DAR (to give)doy / das / damos / dan HACER(to do/to make)- hago / haces / hace /hacemos / hacen
Structure: Irregular Verbs in the Present tense PONER (to put/to set)ponen TRAER(to bring)SALIR (to leave)VENIR (to come)vienen DECIR (to say/tell)- pongo / pones / ponemos / traigo / traes / traemos / traen salgo / sales / sale / salimos / salen vengo / vienes / viene / venimos / digo / dices / dice / decimos / dicen OIR (to hear)oigo / oyes / oye / oímos / oyen SEGUIR (to follow)sigo / sigues / sigue / seguimos / siguen VALER (to be worth)- valgo / vales / valemos /
Structure: The Subjunctive q. The Subjunctive mood is used for a variety of things in the Spanish language such as talking about something that is wished for or something that may not be true (i. e. expressing doubt) q. For example, “I hope she calls” or “I doubt he will come. ” Forming the Subjunctive: 1. Regular verbs � Drop the AR and add the opposite ending: AR- e, es, e, emos, en ER/IR- a, as, a, amos, an 2. Examples: � Casar- Case, cases, casemos, casen � Comer- Coma, comas, comamos, coman � Vivir- Viva, vivas, vivamos, vivan
Structure: Stem-changing verbs in the Subjunctive � Stem changing verbs in the subjunctive operate the same q. The stem change only takes place within the first, second and third person singular and also in the third person plural, making them “boot” verbs. q In other words, only the yo, tu, el/ella/usted, and ustedes forms are changed in the subjunctive of stem-changing verbs. q Just as in regular subjunctive forms, the ending also changes in the word. Examples: 1. CERRAR- Cierre, cierres, cierre, cerremos, cierren 2. CONTAR-Cuente, cuentes, cuente, contemos, cuenten 3. IR verbs in the subjunctive are different. The stem change still occurs in the same places, but the first person plural (nosotros) also changes.
Structure: Irregular verbs in the Subjunctive Mood �Irregular verbs in the subjunctive are the same as they were in the 1 st person of the present tense. �CABER- quepa, quepas, quepamos, quepan �CAER- caiga, caigas, caigamos, caigan �DECIR- diga, digas, digamos, digan �HACER- haga, hagas, hagamos, hagan �PONER- ponga, pongas, pongamos, pongan �SALIR- salga, salgas, salgamos, salgan �TENER- tenga, tengas, tengamos, tengan �VALER- valga, valgas, valgamos, valgan �VENIR- venga, vengas, vengamos, vengan �VER- vea, veas, veamos, vean
Structure: Spelling-changing verbs in the Subjunctive q. Just as in the present tense, the Subjunctive has a number of verbs that have spelling changes to help the pronunciation sound found in the infinitive. q. Found in verbs with endings CAR, CER/CIR, GAR, GER/GIR, and ZAR q. Ending changes q. Car- que Sacar- saque, saques… q. Cer/Cir- zca Conocer- conozca, conozcas… q. Gar- gue Pagar- pague, pagues… q. Ger/Gir- ja Escoger- escoja, escojas… q. Zar- ce Rezar-Rece, reces…
Structure: Super-irregular verbs in the Subjunctive q. There are six verbs that do not follow the 1 st person spelling rule of the present tense q. Dar, estar, haber, ir, saber, and ser. q. Dar- dé, des, dé, demos, den q. Estar- esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén q. Haber- haya, hayas, hayamos, hayan q. Ir- vaya, vayas, vayamos, vayan q. Saber- sepa, sepas, sepamos, sepan q. Ser- sea, seas, seamos, sean