- Slides: 26
Languages in Contact contact languages § Languages that develop as a result of contact between other languages § lingua franca, jargon, koine, pidgin, creole, constructed languages § South East Asia – several examples
PIDGIN § Used for communication by non-native speakers § Always a second language (restricted input) § Develop rapidly (and may die rapidly ) § Hundreds known – others not recorded
Features § Simplified lexis, phonology, syntax, morphology § Example – Solomon Islands Pidgin Mifela I-go go long solwater, lukoutim fish, now win I-kum. Now mifela I-go alabout long kinu now bigfela win I-kum now, mifela I-fafasi allabout rong tumus.
Example (? ) – Korean Bamboo English § Taksan years ago, skoshi Cinderella-san lived in hootchie with sisters. Poor little Cinderella-san ketchee no fun, have no social life. Aways washee-washee, scrubee- scrubee, make chop-chop. One day Cinderella-san ketchee post cardo from Seoul.
Superstrate and substrate § Superstrate language provides vocabulary – socially dominant § may be relexified § Substrate languages may provide structure § (structure may also reflect universal features)
Continued § Principal superstrate languages are English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, also Juba Arabic § Occasional equal languages -Russonorsk
Background § Most Pidgins are in Caribbean and Pacific § Also found in North America, Arctic, West Africa § associated with any contact situation -trade, slavery, plantations
Creoles § A pidgin taught to children § Learnt as first language (with restricted input) § Rapid development § Distinction between pidgins and creoles not always clear § Pidgin and creole variants of same language may coexist
Example – Tok Pisin Dispela man i- stap naboutlong ples matmat na i kam. Em I save slip long ples matmat. Na I no gat wanpela man inap long pasim em. Sen ti I no inap. Plenti taim ol i bin pasim em long hankap na sen.
Continued § More complex than pidgins but less so than superstrate and substrate languages § Distinct languages, although speakers may not be aware of this § Attitudes to Creoles vary – existence may be denied
Continued § Often despised, sometimes source of identity, occasionally national status § post-creole continuum -creole is absorbed by superstrate language § In Caribbean may be several ways of saying one sentence
Creolisation § Some languages may be simplified when learnt as a second languages § Varieties of Malay – bazaar/market Malay, Jakarta Malay § Afrikaans -- simplified version of Dutch in South Africa § Varieties of French in Indian Ocean
continued § Also called semi-creoles or creoloids § Suggested not preceded by creoles § But maybe there was a brief period when a creole and before that a pidgin existed
continued § Compare English with German and Dutch § Syntax and morphology much less complex § At some point was English creolised? –I. e. learnt as a second language
continued § Alternative explanation – Middle English (1150 -1450) is a post-creole developed from a creole which in turn developed from a pidgin § Very speculative
continued § Is it possible that languages may become creoles without going through a pidgin stage?
Features of pidgins and creoles Pidgins & creoles have common features § limited morphology § loss of case § Loss of gender § Lexicalisation of gender § Questions marked by intonation or lexis
continued § § § Absence of copula “to be” Preverbal negation No tones But creoles are closer to other languages More complex syntax and morphology Expanded lexicon
Decreolisation § Education in standard languages affects creoles § Assimilated by standard languages – become dialects § Post-creole continuum in transitional societies § Jamaica and Papua New Guinea – listen to Bob Marley and Panim Wok Band
example § Church Creole in Suriname – variety developed about 1780 for religious purposes – widely imitated § Belly – Sranan – bere -- CC – bele § Time -te -- tem § Help helpi -- yepi
Recreolisation § Afro-Caribbeans in England – adopt features of patois – but is it really recreolisation?
Origins § § § Monogenesis ? family tree model Sabir -- Italian based trade language Portuguese relexification spread by traders and sailors Further relexification
continued § Pidgins in West Africa (and then Caribbean) East Africa, India, Ceylon, S/SE Asia, Pacific, Arctic, N America § Evidence -- Widespread lexis – saber – sibi in Crioulo, sabe in Krio and Bislama, Save in Tok Pisin, sabiam in Kamtok
continued § BUT § Many pidgins and creoles that had nothing to do with Portuguese § Turku – Arabic pidgin around Lake Chad § Sudanese Creole (Juba) Arabic – LF Southern Sudan § Nubi Arabic Creole in Kenya and Uganda
continued § African slaves drafted into Egyptian army in Sudan – joined British army in East Africa § Numbers in Nubi Arabic Creole Wai, tinin, talata, arba, khamsa, sita
Universlism § each pidgin and creole develops independently § common features are the result of a bioprogram (Bickerton) § Human mind is universal – so are pidgins and creoles § Why not both?