- Slides: 30
Language Ties Us Together • Language- The ability to communicate with others orally and/or in writing. – Can be both unifying and dividing • Unifying: nations use their political power to ensure the widespread adoption of a language • Dividing: Many independence movements fueled by desire to use one’s own language
Monolingual vs. Multi-lingual • Monolingual- has only one official language in which all government business is conducted • Multilingual -has more than one official language • Ex: Switzerland has four official languages (German, French, Italian, Romansh)
Lingua Franca • English is the most widespread Lingua Franca in the world. • Lingua Franca- a common tongue among people who speak diverse languages, often to conduct business. • Ex: All airline pilots communicate in English
Development and Lingua Franca • The more developed a country is the more its language will be used in worldwide commerce. • Ex: Mandarian Chinese is becoming more and more important to learn. It is being taught more and more in U. S schools. • Ex: As business becomes more global it is becoming more important to speak another language.
Dialects • Dialect- a form of a language that is different in sound, speed and syntax( the grammatical arrangement of a language, and vocabulary. • EX: U. S Dialects. Northeastern accent, Southern accent, Midwestern accent, Cajun accent, accents based on age.
What is an isogloss? • Isogloss- the boundary of a dialect • Geographers and Linguists interview people from different regions to determine speech patterns. • Ex: North- “You guys” = a group of people • Ex: Appalacia- “you’uns” = a group of people • Ex: South- “Y’all”= a group of people • The boundary for all of these is determine by an isogloss.
Isogloss of Dialects
Another isogloss map showing dialects
What do you call these products? • http: //popvssoda. com: 2998/
Dialects Continued • Northeastern- elimination of letter r when a short a precedes it. – Ex: “Party” becomes “Pahty”
Pidgin, Trade, and Creole Languages • When cultures collide, languages mix. – Ex: Cajun- mix of English and French – Ex: Spanglish- mix of English and Spanish • Pidgin- Mixture of languages – Often very elementary as far as grammar, vocabulary but they allow TRADE to occur. • Trade Language- a made up language that is used by people who want to trade
Cajun Night Before Christmas • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=kmjb. Q vc. Dbe. M
Hawaiian Pidgin The Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe translated into Hawaiian Pidgin Dere waz one ol Tutu Stay living in one slippa She get choke kids Planny braddahs and one sistah She geev um lau But no mo da poi Den broke dere okoles And sent dem moi Vocabulary: Tutu- grandmother Slippa- sandals Choke- a lot Planny –plenty Braddahs- brothers Sistah- sister Poi- a Hawaiian food made from taro plant Okoles- butt Moi- sleep
Hawaiian Pidgin • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z. Uj 5 t 4 Yev. Ds
Creole Language • Creole Language- a stable language resulting from a blend of two or more languages which does not include features of either. • Ex: Haiti- speak a creole language that is a blend of African languages with French. • (Don’t confuse this use of creole with Creole people who are of European decent born in a European colonial era, particularly Latin America or the Caribbean)
What happens to languages when a dominant culture interacts with a less dominant culture?
• Cultural appropriation – the adoption of customs by other cultures • Cultural assimilation – the process by which a less dominant culture adopts the traits of a more dominant culture so completely that the two cultures become indistinguishable • Acculturation – the process by which a less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of a more dominant culture.
Extinct Languages • A language no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world – Examples: • Native American Languages • Gothic • Indigenous African Languages • Minority Languages/Endangered Languages – Language spoken by a minority of the population of a country – Sometimes forced to give up language • Examples: Gaelic, Welsh, Cherokee
What is AAVE or Ebonics? • • Ebonics Notes and Discussion John R. Rickford December, 1996 • (1) Some sample sentences in AAVE/Ebonics, with discussion of the ways in which they show the systematicity of AAVE: • AAVE: "She BIN had dat han'-made dress" (SE: She's had that hand-made dress for a long time, and still does. ) AAVE: "Befo' you know it, he be done aced de tesses. " (SE Before you know it, he will have already aced the tests. ) AAVE: "Ah 'on know what homey be doin. " (SE: I don't know what my friend is usually doing. ) AAVE: "Can't nobody tink de way he do. " (SE: Nobody can think the way he does. ) AAVE: "I ast Ruf could she bring it ovah to Tom crib. " (SE: I asked Ruth if/whether she could bring it over to Tom's place. ) • •
Where are English-Language Speakers Distributed? Origin and Diffusion of English
Do you remember what a hearth is? • All languages have a hearth from which they originate. They then diffuse through the migration of the speakers.
English…. Did you know? • English is the 2 nd most spoken language in the world after Mandarian. – Except English is spoken all over the world while Mandarian is mainly in China. • It is spoken by a half billion people. • It is an official language in 50 countries
English Colonies • English diffused with the creation of the British Empire. • As people migrated from Great Britain they brought their language with them. • Most of the former British colonies still speak English. • Why do we speak English in the United States?
Why do they speak English in Great Britain? • English is considered a Germanic Language. • Germanic Tribes (Denmark and Northwestern Germany) invaded England.
Why do they speak English in Great Britain? • As different Germanic groups migrated and then lived in isolation from each other the language then changes as time goes on. • Other groups migrated to England too, like the Vikings, and they added their own twist to the English language.
More to English • The Normans Invade in 1066 – Speak French and make French the official language for 300 years – The common person still spoke English – Eventually the French and English merged creating the more modern English we know today.
How did English Evolve? https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=k. Iz. Fz 9 T 5 rh. I
Test your use of the English language • What do the following words mean? – – – I going to get a new flat. I’m going to take the lift. Queue up! Go red up your room! Y’ins need to leave! He's fixin' to eat. Make sure you get a buggy before we go in. I’ll get them, they are down cellar. Look at that bloke. That guy is such a galoot. Do you have a gum band?
Accents? Let’s listen again…. . • Accents