- Slides: 8
TRADITIONAL VS MODERN LINGUISTICS � Can linguistic change be observed while it is actually occurring? � Traditional Linguistics vs Modern Linguistics --- Saussure (1959) and Bloomfield (1933): most linguists have maintained that change itself cannot be observed; all that we can possibly hope to observe are the consequences of change.
KINDS OF CHANGES � 1. Internal Change …. internal structure of a language; : phonology, morphology, syntax. � 2. External Change …. Borrowing from other dialects or languages.
SOME CHANGES IN PROGRESS � Chambers and Trudgill (1980), (1983), (1988) women language variation in Norwich. � Gimson (1962) � Labov (1963). . . Sound changes in progress in Martha Vineyard, (1972), (1981). . women’s roles � Cheshire (1978)… variation between boys and girls in England.
THE PROCESS OF CHANGE � Labov (1972 b, pp. 178– 80) suggests that there are two basic kinds of change: change from below, i. e. , change from below conscious awareness, and change from above, i. e. , change brought about consciously. Change from below is systematic, unconscious change, whereas change from above is sporadic, conscious, and involves issues of prestige. � The basic mechanism of sound change --Lavov (1972)… 13 stages.
HOW DO CHANGES SPREAD? � 1. From group to group � 2. From style to style � 3. From word to word ---lexical diffusion � The way to pronounce the word ‘knight’.
HOW DO WE STUDY LANGUAGE CHANGE? � 1. Apparent-time studies of language change. . . . comparing the speech of people from different age groups. � 2. Language change in real time ……a very reliable method of identifying changes
REASONS FOR LANGUAGE CHANGE � Social status and language change… superiority vs inferiority � Sex and language change… women vs men � Interaction and language change. . . Intercultural communication.