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Land Preparation Operations Part 1: Understanding the Palay. Check System
Can rice grow in this field? What do you observe?
To prepare the land well for planting… TILLAGE • Loosens soil mass to facilitate good root development • Incorporates organic matter and fertilizers to the soil • Kills weeds and pests through plowing • Facilitates good water drainage and distribution [better field operations, better harvest quality]
IMAGINE THIS Where can you easily pass through? The people represent the soil, you are the roots.
A well-prepared land can be achieved by: Primary tillage – initial cutting of the soil where crop has been grown and harvested. Field after first plowing
A well-prepared land can be achieved by: Secondary tillage – subsequent cultivation of soil after primary tillage. This operation breaks soil clods to incorporate materials thoroughly into the soil. Field after secondary dry working
Tillage: 3 ways Wetland tillage – soil is tilled in saturated or flooded condition. This is the usual way. Dryland tillage – done in upland/rainfed fields to obtain mellow, firm seedbed for seeds to germinate, control weeds, and incorporate materials into the soil. Wetland Dryland combination
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Clean the field Cleaning of Dikes Scattering of straw REMEMBER: Dikes must be cleaned to remove pest and compacted to prevent seepage
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Soak the field Submerge at least 3 days to soften soil clods. Let water drain naturally to allow weed seeds to germinate.
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Plow the field While field is submerged, plow counterclockwise, finishing at the center.
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Side plow For areas not reached by normal plowing Do it in an opposite direction to the normal plowing
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Harrow the field 1 st harrowing is done along plowing pattern 2 nd harrowing is done crosswise
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Repair dikes Repair the dike to impound water particularly where water supply is not dependable Manage rats too.
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Level the field After plowing Harrow Optional: final harrowing Lengthwise and crosswise until soil is well-puddled. Done at least a day before planting Level the field Use wooden plank or riding leveler. • To assess, level the field with 2 – 5 cm depth of water
Major Wetland Tillage Activities • Level the field A properly-leveled field facilitates uniform water and fertilizer distribution and plant maturity, and management of weeds and golden apple snails.
Major Wetland Tillage Activities Clean the field Soak the field Repair dikes Plow the field, side-plow Harrow Level the field
Major Dryland Tillage Activities Just similar to wetland tillage minus soaking the field/irrigation Cleaning Plow the field Harrow field Repair dikes (Optional) Level field
Dryland Tillage Major Activities • Plow the field/Initial Tillage [dry preparation] 2 ha/day Plow as soon as enough rain has fallen.
Dryland Tillage Major Activities • Secondary tillage [dry preparation] Secondary tillage will make sure soil is pulverized. Weed seeds are allowed to germinate before field is harrowed again.
Dryland Tillage Major Activities • Level the field Level before planting. Dry-seeding will be efficient if soil is well pulverized and leveled.
Dryland Tillage Major Activities (Optional) Cleaning Plow the field Harrow field Repair dikes Level field
Major dryland-wetland combi activities It’s a combination of methods for partially-irrigated fields. Soil is pulverized while waiting for the rain/irrigation to come. Hand tractors with rotavator can help. The rest of the tillage operations are done in submerged fields.
Let’s compare methods Wetland § Clean the field § Soak the field Dryland § Clean the field ----------- Combination § Clean the field § Rotavate land while waiting for the rain § Side plow/plow the field § Plow when § Harrow the field § Repair dikes § Level the field moisture is available
Let’s compare benefits Wetland • Controls weeds • Incorporates organic materials & fertilizers to soil • Makes seeding/ transplanting easier • Forms a hard layer (plow pan) which reduces water loss (percolation) during subsequent flooding Dryland • Controls weeds • Incorporates organic materials & fertilizers to soil • Makes seeding easier • Conserves irrigation water • Reduces number of operation Combination • Controls weeds • Incorporates organic materials & fertilizers to soil • Conserves irrigation water • Reduces number of operation • Reduces GAS populations • Forms hard pan which reduces percolation loss
Let’s compare costs Wetland P 4, 500 per hectare Dryland P 7, 500 per hectare (3 passings) Combination P 6, 200 per hectare
? Which method to choose Consider these: § § Water availability Power resources Cost Soil type/characteristics
CONSIDER THIS If the farmer has these: üsoil type: silt + sandy ü available water source: shallow tube well ü Machine: hand tractor ? What is the best method to use?
Soil type CONSIDER THIS If soil is silty and sandy (‘galas’) DRYLAND or COMBINATION is best If soil is heavily clayey(‘lagkit’) WETLAND is best Water availability If irrigated WETLAND is best If partially-irrigated (shallow tube well, etc. ) COMBINATION is best Power resources In irrigated fields, it is not advisable to use heavy equipment all the time.
CREDITS Instructional presentation designer: Ms. Ella Lois Bestil Sources of technical content/reviewers of presentation: Dr. Aurora Corales; Engr. Arnold Juliano; Mrs. Anita Antonio Note: Adapted from a powerpoint presentation developed by: Dr. Manuel Jose Regalado, Engr. Eugenio Castro (IRRI), Dr. Aurora Corales, Engr. Arnold Juliano You may use, remix, tweak, For more information, visit: & build upon this presentation non-commercially. However, always use with acknowledgment. Unless otherwise stated, the names listed are Phil. Rice staffers. Produced in 2011. Text: 0920 -911 -1398