- Slides: 12
Land Empires vs. Maritime Empires
Land Empires • Control of huge lands & people • Requires large military investment • Vulnerable to land & sea routes • Requires massive infrastructure investment • Superior technology used to suppress natives • Expanded contact with imperial subjects • Dependence on native collaborators
Maritime Empires • Control of trade via limited ports • Production & shipment of commodities • Colonization of limited territory • Limited military confrontations & investments • Exploitation of improved maritime technology • Expanded exploration & control of distance areas • Dependence on native collaborators
Comparing Empires 1450 -1750 • Most maintained Absolutist rule (exception England the • • • Netherlands) All maintained and extended territories through gunpowder weaponry All dominated trade routes and gained revenue through protectionism Most were dominated by religion and were conflicted by religious pluralism Sugar, Spice and slave trade were fundamental to their economy. All will establish a policy of infrastructure building and religious zeal. All will contend with management of a multiethnic empire
Comparing Empires 1450 -1750 • • Maritime were predominantly Christian Some were privately invested Maritime empires were exploitative and competitive “gunpowder” empires were ruled through Islamic forces Overland Empires lost monopoly of Indian Ocean trade after Battle of Lepanto Interaction with the “West” was generally through ports established by European interests (Calicut, Goa, Aden) By 17 th century many Islamic Empires became fundamentally more conservative and increasingly more insular contributing to their declining commercial role.
One land, one sea • From 1450 -1750 in both the Ottoman Empire and Spain, rulers exercised divine right absolute power over the masses, both developed large multi-ethnic empires through their military (gunpowder technologies 0, however Spain would establish a large overseas colonial Empire in the Americas while the Ottoman would extend primarily overland in SW Asia and Eastern Europe • IN 1450 -1750 both the Russians and English would ethnocentrically contribute to the slaughter of native populations, utilize the fur trade to extract this lucrative global commodity, however, the Russian’s would not embrace fully the ideas of the “West” ( science, enlightenment) while the coffeehouses of England would be a penny education for science and technology • From 1450 -1750 the Mughal and France would both sponsor large commodity exchanges of textiles and agricultural products, however, the Mughal(under Akbar) would be far more religiously tolerant than France (under Louis XIV) and the Mughal would foster exports from European ports like Goa and Calicut while France would utilize the trading posts in the Atlantic in New France and NE Americas • From 1450 -1750 both Portugal and the Kongo were engaging in reciprocal trading relations of manufactured products (Portuguese firearms and Rum for African slaves for Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil), both had diplomats in their respective courts (Ndonga and Lisbon) however, the Portuguese were not interested in converting to local African cultures while African Monarchs like Queen Ndzinga and King Alfonso would convert to Christianity (Antonianism)
From 1450 -1750 in both the Ottoman Empire and Spain, rulers exercised divine right absolute power over the masses, both developed large multi-ethnic empires through their military (gunpowder technologies, however Spain would establish a large overseas colonial Empire in the Americas while the Ottoman would extend primarily overland in SW Asia and Eastern Europe Phiilip II and Suleyman are considered great absolute rulers of Spain and the Ottoman utilizing divine right leadership over their subjects. The Reconquista of Spain (1492) and encounter of the Americas (also 1492) and the siege of Constantinople( 1453) utilizing the latest weaponry helped control their multi-ethnic populationos Spain’s maritime empires were more manageable based on the encomienda system as well as guns germs and steel while the overland empire of the Ottoman was a burden to manage. The building of the Escorial palace by Phillip and Tokapi palace by Suleyman illustrate their wealth and power as well as the role of Cathilocism and Sunni Islam to reinforce and justify their respective powers. The conquering of territories over established inhabitants and developing strong assertive policies facilitated rigid control over their empires. Maritime empires require less intensive management and control than overland because colonial management is left up to indirect control of the viceroyalties while direct control under the Ottoman was more taxing to provide