- Slides: 37
Ladder Safety in Construction
Ladder Safety in Construction Falls from ladders are one of the leading causes of injuries in the construction trade. The majority of the falls are caused by misuse, faulty ladders or carelessness. This presentation provides some basic safety practices on ladder use based on these regulations.
Common causes of ladder injuries Improperly getting on or off the ladder Loss of balance Setting up the ladder improperly Overreaching while on the ladder Mis-stepping or slipping while climbing or descending
Other causes of falls from ladders • Lack of training on safe ladder use • Using the wrong type ladder for the job • Exceeding the ladder weight capacity • Climbing ladder with tools or material in hands • Climbing or descending not facing the ladder • Oil, grease or mud on ladder rungs • Ladder not secure at the base or top • Ladder not set up at the proper angle • Ladder not extended 3 feet above upper surface • Using the top step of a step ladder • Placing ladder on unstable surfaces • Over-reaching beyond the side rails of the ladder
Ladder Training Every employee that uses a ladder must be trained by a competent person in the use, placement and construction of the ladder and the hazards associated with them. A competent person is anyone who is knowledgeable of the ladders to be used, can recognize all the hazards associated with ladders and has the authority to take the necessary action to eliminate these hazards.
Ladder Parts – Step Ladder
Non-self supporting ladders These include straight ladders and extension ladders. A ladder is “non-self supporting” type when it must be leaned against a solid structure for support and can’t stand alone. In the photo, this extension ladder will be supported by the building structure. Leaning extension ladder against building for support
Extension Ladder parts
Multipurpose ladders These ladders can be used in a variety of configurations
Ladder load capacity Each ladder type has a “duty rating” that is specific to the maximum safe load capacity of the ladder. A person's fully clothed weight plus the weight of the persons tool belt must be less than this duty rating. Workers should select a ladder based on load capacity and the type of work to be done. Exceeding the load capacity may cause the ladder to collapse. Ladders will be labeled as shown above.
Keep Ladders in a Good Condition Ensure the following: - Side rails aren't bent, broken, or split - Rungs, cleats, or steps aren't bent, broken, or missing - All bolts and rivets are in place and securely tighten - Joint between the side rails and the individual rungs/steps is tight - Safety feet are not excessively worn - Hardware and fittings are securely attached and working properly - Ropes aren't frayed or badly worn - Moveable parts operate freely without binding or excessive play. - Metal components aren't corroded. - No other faulty or defective components exist. - Any auxiliary equipment is securely attached, not excessively worn and functions properly.
Inspect ladders before use Look for cracks, splits, dents, bends, corrosion, and missing hardware. All of these ladders are unsafe and could fail if used by employees.
Mud, Oil or Grease Keep shoes/boots free of slippery substances. Inspect ladder rungs for any oil, grease, mud or other slippery substances which could affect traction.
Ladder Positioning Position ladders so that they are: • Not in the paths of workers walking through, • Not in front of unblocked exits, • Not in front of doors that can open out into the ladder, • Not on boxes, barrels or other unstable surfaces, • On solid footing and level at the bottom, • Stable at the top with each rail supported equally, • Against a structure capable of supporting the intended load, • Away from debris and other hazards.
Ladder Placement Place ladders on solid surfaces that will support the ladder and prevent displacement by other workers. Block, tape, lock or guard a door if the ladder is placed where the door will hit it when opened.
Step-Ladder Setup Open up step ladder legs completely and lock the spreader bar braces.
Never use the top of a step ladder Warning labels on stepladders clearly state that the top step and top cap are not to be used as a step. The higher you are on a step ladder, the less stable it becomes. step ladder too short for this job Doing this…. …could lead to this!!
Setting up extension ladder Place ladder base on a firm, level surface with secure footing. Don’t place a ladder on unstable footing or soft ground. As the ladder sinks into the ground or slips from where it is positioned, it becomes very unstable. Position the ladder on solid ground or shoring to ensure stability. An unstable base
Setting up an extension ladder When working from an extension ladder, make sure it is set up at a 4: 1 angle with secure footing on a firm level surface. For accessing an upper level, make sure the extension ladder is set up at a 4: 1 angle on a firm, level surface and the side rails extend at least 3’ above the surface to be accessed. Proper ladder set-up Lastly, make sure the extension ladder is secured at the top and bottom Improper ladder set-up (not 3 ft. above roof line)
Proper Extension Ladder Setup For every four feet of ladder length measured from where the ladder contacts the support point, the base of the ladder should be one foot away from the supporting structure (one to four rule). The ladder must extend at least three feet above the surface to provide safe access or be rigidly secured at the top with a grasping device if less than three feet. The ladder in the photo contacts the supporting structure at 9 feet. This means that the base of the ladder should be 27 inches back from the support. Extended 3 ft. above top surface Secured from slipping 9 ft. 27 c in s e h
Determining proper ladder setup angle One way to ensure proper angle is to stand with your feet at the base of the ladder and extend your arms straight out. If your hands just touch, the ladder will be very close to the 4 to 1 ratio.
Ladder set-up on uneven ground Ladder can be set up straight and level on just about any type of uneven surface using ladder levels attached to the side rails.
Straight ladder stabilizers The straight ladder side rails must be equally supported at the top, unless the ladder is equipped with an adequate stabilizer. Ladders with top stabilizers
Climbing or descending a ladder When climbing a ladder, you must have both hands free and face the ladder. This allows for three points of contact with the ladder at all times and reduces the chances of falling. The three point contact is two hands and one foot or one hand two feet. This way Not this way
Climbing and descending This worker does not have both hands free to hold onto the ladder while climbing or descending the ladder. Proper ladder climbing with tools on belt and both hands free
Overreaching from the sides Doing this…. Could result in this!
Electrical Hazards and Ladders Don’t use metal or conductive ladders near energized electrical equipment or overhead power lines.
Tying Extension ladders Don’t tie or fasten ladder sections together to make a longer ladder, unless the manufacturer specifically endorses this modification using hardware fittings designed for that purpose.
Ladder misuse A ladder must be used only for purposes specifically recommended by the manufacturer. The ladder in this photo is being as a ramp to enter the house interior.
Step Ladder Misuse Rather than a firm, level surface, this stepladder is positioned on a fence so the such that the bottom step is taking the load rather than the side rails. It doesn’t extend three feet above the roof surface, is not secured, and the worker is standing on the top step to access roof. This stepladder is being misused to access doorway. Stepladders can’t be used partially closed and leaned against the wall.
Stepladder Misuse A 3 -legged stepladder with the worker standing on the top cap and balancing on one foot. (Also, no safety glasses while using a nail gun and hard hat is worn backwards)
Step ladder misuse This step ladder is not fully opened with spreader bar locked and the step ladder side rails are straddling a scaffold plank being set up in a position not intended by the manufacturer.
Hazardous Ladder Use A 3 -legged step-ladder leaned against a 2 x 4 nailed across the window. A repair patch on the left front side rail of ladder. No fall protection in use while working at height.
Hazardous ladder use Unsecured, folded step-ladder set on an angled shed roof so that only the tips of the side rails lay on roof. Extension ladder not extended at least 3 -feet above roof, set up at an angle greater than a 4: 1, and it’s not secured top and bottom to prevent movement. No fall protection being used while on this walking/working surface.
Ladder Misuse Two workers using two step-ladders leaned against wall, set up over wood debris, with the far worker standing on the top step. (also, third worker needs fall protection) A better choice in ladders would make this job easier!!
More safe ladder practices Use a ladder only when you are mentally alert and physically able. Don’t let your belt buckle pass beyond either ladder side rails. Hold the ladder with one hand while working with the other. Don't hurry or skip rungs /steps when using the ladder. Be careful when pushing or pulling anything while up on a ladder.
A few more ladder safe practices Don't test a ladder by jumping on it. Don't paint a wood ladder. Don't use any ladder that has been exposed to fire or other strong chemicals. Protect ladders from environmental elements such as: excessive heat or cold. Don't drop or throw ladders. Store ladders out of the way of other employees. Secure ladders firmly when transporting on vehicles.