Labour Input Human Capital and Management Capital Wulong

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Labour Input, Human Capital and Management Capital Wulong Gu Economic Analysis Division, Statistics Canada

Labour Input, Human Capital and Management Capital Wulong Gu Economic Analysis Division, Statistics Canada Presentation to the First World KLEMS Conference Harvard University August 19 -20, 2010

Labour input and importance of investment in human capital § Investment in skills and

Labour input and importance of investment in human capital § Investment in skills and human capital are seen to be important determinant of economic growth. § The measurement of human capital have become an important part of investigations into sustainability in Canada and in other countries (UNECE 2009). § My presentation will focus on the work done at Statistics Canada on measurement of labour input, worker skills and human capital and its contribution to economic performance. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Outline § Measurement of labour input takes into account the effect of investment in

Outline § Measurement of labour input takes into account the effect of investment in skills § Measurement of human capital stock and investment § Measurement of investment in training and management capital Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Measurement of labour input § In the late 1990 s, the Canadian Productivity Accounts

Measurement of labour input § In the late 1990 s, the Canadian Productivity Accounts (CPAs) constructed a measure of labour input that takes into account the changes in labour composition. § Labour input is disaggregated by age, educational attainment and class of workers (paid and self-employed workers). § The measure is a part of Canadian KLEMS and it allows us to assess the contribution of investment in education and training to output growth and productivity growth in Canada. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Changes in the composition of labour § Dramatic changes in the educational qualifications of

Changes in the composition of labour § Dramatic changes in the educational qualifications of the worker force. • The share of those with some or completed post-secondary education in total hours worked increased from less than 10% in 1961 to over 70% by 2009. The share of those workers with primary and secondary education declined from 90% to 30% over the period. § Changes in the age structure of the labour force. • The share of younger workers increased in the 1970 s and 1980 s as the post-war baby boomers entered the workforce. • The share of older workers increased more recently as the baby boomers approach the retirement age. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Annual growth in labour services, hours worked and labour composition 1961 -1989 -2009 1961

Annual growth in labour services, hours worked and labour composition 1961 -1989 -2009 1961 -2009 Labour input 2. 7 1. 6 2. 3 Hours worked 1. 9 1. 0 1. 6 Labour composition 0. 8 0. 6 0. 7 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Sources of labour productivity growth 1961 -1989 -2009 1961 -2009 Labour productivity growth 2.

Sources of labour productivity growth 1961 -1989 -2009 1961 -2009 Labour productivity growth 2. 4 1. 3 1. 9 Contribution of capital deepening 1. 4 1. 0 1. 3 Contribution of labour composition 0. 5 0. 4 MFP growth 0. 5 -0. 1 0. 2 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Measurement of human capital stock and investment § The index of labour input reflects

Measurement of human capital stock and investment § The index of labour input reflects the flow of services from the stock of human capital stock. § To integrate human capital in the System of National Accounts and provide a more comprehensive examination of the role of human capital in economic performance, we developed a measure of human capital. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Average annual growth in human capital 1970 to 2007 1970 to 1980 to 2000

Average annual growth in human capital 1970 to 2007 1970 to 1980 to 2000 to 2007 Human capital stock 1. 7 3. 1 1. 2 1. 0 Working-age population 1. 5 2. 1 1. 2 1. 3 Human capital per capita 0. 2 0. 9 0. 0 -0. 2 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Contribution of age and education to changes in human capital per capita 1970 to

Contribution of age and education to changes in human capital per capita 1970 to 1980 to 2007 1980 2007 Education Age 0. 9 1. 4 0. 8 0. 5 -0. 4 -0. 1 -0. 5 -0. 6 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Investment in human capital and physical capital 11 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada 3/11/2021

Investment in human capital and physical capital 11 Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada 3/11/2021

Composition of Canada’s total wealth Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Composition of Canada’s total wealth Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Measurement of investment in training and management capital § Canada has one of the

Measurement of investment in training and management capital § Canada has one of the most highly qualified labour forces in the world. § But some claim that Canadians lag other OECD countries in training and management talent. § Our recent work has focused on the role of investment in training and management capital in Canada’s economic performance. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Using methodologies of Corrado, Hulten and Sichel § We followed the methodologies of Corrado,

Using methodologies of Corrado, Hulten and Sichel § We followed the methodologies of Corrado, Hulten and Sichel (2005, 2009) to construct a measure of investment in training and management capital, along with other types of intangible capital. § Intangible capital includes computerized information (software and computerized database), innovative property (scientific R&D and non-scientific R&D), and economic competencies (brand equity, training and management capital). Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Intangible investment as % of business sector GDP 1976 2008 Total intangible 4. 9

Intangible investment as % of business sector GDP 1976 2008 Total intangible 4. 9 13. 2 Computerized information 0. 2 1. 5 Innovative property 1. 9 4. 1 Economic competencies 2. 7 7. 6 Advertising 1. 2 1. 5 Training 0. 2 0. 3 Purchased organizational capital 0. 4 3. 6 1. 0 2. 2 Own account organizational capital Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Contribution of intangibles to growth 1976 -2000 -2008 Labour productivity growth 1. 7 0.

Contribution of intangibles to growth 1976 -2000 -2008 Labour productivity growth 1. 7 0. 8 Capital deepening 1. 3 1. 4 Tangible 0. 8 Intangible 0. 5 0. 6 Computerized information 0. 1 Innovative property 0. 2 Economic competencies 0. 3 0. 2 Labour composition 0. 4 0. 3 Multifactor productivity growth 0. 1 -0. 8 Contributions of: Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

A comparison with US results § We find that investment in intangibles was lower

A comparison with US results § We find that investment in intangibles was lower in Canada than in the U. S. due to Canada’s lower investment in R&D and computer software, especially in more recent years. § The overall contribution of intangibles to labour productivity growth is found to be similar in the two countries from the mid-1970 s to 1995. § After 1995, the contribution of intangibles was lower in Canada than in the United States, due to Canada’s lower investment in software and R&D capital. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Investment in management capital § We find that investment in management capital was similar

Investment in management capital § We find that investment in management capital was similar between Canada and the United States. § Investment in management capital made similar contributions to labour productivity growth in the two countries. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada

Future work § To expand the asset boundary of the system of national accounts

Future work § To expand the asset boundary of the system of national accounts to include human capital. § To integrate human capital in the production account, income and expenditure account, accumulation account and wealth account. Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada