Laboratory Exercise 1 Human Body Terms Organization and

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Laboratory Exercise 1 “Human Body: Terms, Organization and Systems” © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Laboratory Exercise 1 “Human Body: Terms, Organization and Systems” © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Human Body • In this exercise, you will understand anatomic terminology and body organization

Human Body • In this exercise, you will understand anatomic terminology and body organization (the use of terms to describe the locations of body structures) and the organ systems of the body • Terms describing these body points should be familiar to you: directional (bipedal-2 legs and quadrupedal-4 legs), regional, planar and cavitated • This laboratory exercise correlates with Chapter 1 of your lecture textbook; Exercise 1 of your laboratory manual © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

What procedures are we doing? • We will define human anatomic terms. • Directional

What procedures are we doing? • We will define human anatomic terms. • Directional relates one structures locale to that of another. • Regional identifies what area of the body a structure is found in. • We will also define the different planes and cavities of the body © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Resources available… • Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Study Pages; submenu: anatomical terminology http: //ctle.

Resources available… • Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Study Pages; submenu: anatomical terminology http: //ctle. hccs. edu/biologylabs/AP 1 index. html © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Laboratory Lecture © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Laboratory Lecture © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Anatomical Terminology • Superficial anatomy provides anatomical landmarks; these are references to structures that

Anatomical Terminology • Superficial anatomy provides anatomical landmarks; these are references to structures that we can touch and see (they are palpable) • The commonly accepted anatomical position is with the hands at the sides, palms facing forward, with the feet next to each other • Supine: lying down, face up • Prone: lying down, face down

Figure 1 -5 a Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Supine: Lay down Face

Figure 1 -5 a Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Supine: Lay down Face up Ipsilateral? Contralateral? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1 -5 b Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Prone: Lay down Face

Figure 1 -5 b Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Prone: Lay down Face down © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Terms • • Regional terms identify what area of the body a structure

Regional Terms • • Regional terms identify what area of the body a structure is found in (this is a references term) An important example is in the abdominopelvic cavity, which contains: • Four Abdominopelvic quadrants, with • Nine Abdominopelvic regions © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Abdominopelvic Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

Abdominopelvic Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) a Abdominopelvic quadrants. The four abdominopelvic quadrants are formed by two perpendicular lines that intersect at the navel. The terms for these quadrants, or their abbreviations, are most often used in clinical discussions. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Abdominopelvic Regions. Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right inguinal region Epigastric region Left

Abdominopelvic Regions. Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right inguinal region Epigastric region Left hypochondriac region Umbilical region Left lumbar region Hypogastric (pubic) region Left inguinal region b Abdominopelvic regions. The nine abdominopelvic regions provide more precise regional descriptions. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions. Liver Gallbladder Stomach Spleen Large intestine Small intestine Appendix Urinary

Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions. Liver Gallbladder Stomach Spleen Large intestine Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder c Anatomical relationships. The relationship between the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the locations of the internal organs are shown here. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

There are many regional terms… (I have hi-lited just a few on the following

There are many regional terms… (I have hi-lited just a few on the following pages) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1 -5 a Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Supine: Lay down Face

Figure 1 -5 a Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Supine: Lay down Face up © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1 -5 b Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Prone: Lay down Face

Figure 1 -5 b Anatomical Landmarks (Part 1 of 2). Prone: Lay down Face down © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Directional Terms • Directional terms describe where one structure is in relation to another

Directional Terms • Directional terms describe where one structure is in relation to another (anatomical reference based on a subject); here are some examples… • Ipsilateral means the structures are on the same side of the body • Contralateral means the structures are on opposite sides of the body • Intermediate means one structure is between two other structures • Proximal is close to a pivot point • Distal is far from the pivot point © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Directional Terms Superior: Above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the

Directional Terms Superior: Above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the head) Right Superior The head is superior to the knee. Cranial or Cephalic Left Toward the head The cranial, or cephalic, border of the pelvis is superior to the thigh. Proximal Toward an attached base The shoulder is proximal to the wrist. Lateral Medial Away from the midline Toward the midline Posterior or Dorsal Anterior or Ventral Posterior: The back surface Anterior: The front surface Dorsal: The back. (equivalent to posterior when referring to the human body) Ventral: The belly side. (equivalent to anterior when referring to the human body) The scapula (shoulder blade) is located posterior to the rib cage. The umbilicus (navel) is on the anterior (or ventral) surface of the trunk. Proximal Caudal Distal Contralateral? Ipsilateral? Away from an attached base Toward the tail; (coccyx in humans) The fingers are distal to the wrist. The hips are caudal to the waist. OTHER DIRECTIONAL TERMS Superficial Distal At, near, or relatively close to the body surface The skin is superficial to underlying structures. Deep Toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface a Anterior view Inferior: Below; at a lower level; toward the feet © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles. The knee is inferior to the hip. b Lateral view Inferior

Body Planes • There are 3 anatomical planes, each with sections • A Plane

Body Planes • There are 3 anatomical planes, each with sections • A Plane is a three-dimensional axis (x, y, z graph) • A Section is a slice that is parallel to a plane • This is used to visualize the internal organization and structure • It is important in different radiological techniques • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imagry) • PET (Positon Emission Tomography) • CT (Computerized Tomography) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary of Sectional Planes. Pronounced: “sajedl” Sagittal plane Frontal or coronal plane Plane is

Summary of Sectional Planes. Pronounced: “sajedl” Sagittal plane Frontal or coronal plane Plane is oriented parallel to long axis A sagittal section separates right and left portions. You examine a sagittal section, but you section sagittally. A frontal, or coronal, section separates anterior and posterior portions of the body. Coronal usually refers to sections passing through the skull. In a midsagittal section, the plane passes through the midline. It separates the body into equal right and left sides. Directional term: frontally or coronally Midsagittal plane A parasagittal section misses the midline. It separates the body into unequal right and left sides. Directional term: sagittally Transverse or horizontal plane Plane is oriented perpendicular to long axis Frontal plane Transverse plane (inferior view) A transverse, or cross, section separates superior and inferior portions of the body. Directional term: transversely or horizontally

Body Cavities • There are two essential functions of body cavities • They protect

Body Cavities • There are two essential functions of body cavities • They protect organs from accidental shocks • They permit changes in the size and shape of internal organs (i. e. heart, lungs, etc…) • The main example is the ventral body cavity, which is termed the Coelom • It is composed of the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity • These cavities are separated by the diaphragm • Another example is the dorsal body cavity, which contains the cavities of the brain and spinal cord • Lastly, there is the orbital body cavity

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. DORSAL VENTRAL Cranial

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. DORSAL VENTRAL Cranial cavity Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Thoracic cavity Vertebral or Spinal cavity Diaphragm Peritoneal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity A lateral view showing the body cavities of the trunk. The muscular diaphragm subdivides them into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity. Four adult true body cavities are shown Only one of the two pleural thoracic cavities can be shown in a sagittal section! © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Let’s take a closer look at the ventral body cavity… © 2015 Pearson Education,

Let’s take a closer look at the ventral body cavity… © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity • Provides protection • Allows

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Ventral Body Cavity • Provides protection • Allows organ movement • Linings prevent friction Subdivides during development into Abdominopelvic Cavity Thoracic Cavity Surrounded by the chest wall and the diaphragm Peritoneal Cavity Right Pleural Cavity Surrounds right lung Mediastinum trachea, esophagus, thymus and major vessels, and also… Pericardial cavity Surrounds heart © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Left Pleural Cavity Surrounds left lung Extends throughout the abdominal cavity and into the superior portion of the pelvic cavity Abdominal Cavity Contains many digestive glands and organs Pelvic Cavity Contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, the end of the digestive tract and the rectum

Ventral body cavity divisions You can see two pleural cavities the thorax in a

Ventral body cavity divisions You can see two pleural cavities the thorax in a coronal section VENTRAL BODY CAVITY THORACIC CAVITY Left lung in left pleural cavity Right lung in right pleural cavity Spine Mediastinum ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY Diaphragm THORACIC CAVITY The abdominal cavity contains many digestive glands and organs Retroperitoneal area* Diaphragm ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY The pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the last portion of the digestive tract *The retroperitoneal space is an area posterior to the peritoneum and anterior to the muscular body wall. It contains the pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and parts of the digestive tract © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

 • Serous membranes line ventral body cavities and secrete serous fluid into the

• Serous membranes line ventral body cavities and secrete serous fluid into the cavity • They consist of two continuous layers separated by a cavity • The visceral layer is an inner layer that covers the organ surface • The parietal layer is an opposing outer layer that covers inner surface of body wall or chamber • The cavity is the potential space between the visceral and parietal layers • This cavity is filled with serous fluid (lubricant) • Allows for smooth movement of the surrounded organ (i. e. heart, lung, digestive tract, etc…) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

 • Examples of Serous Membranes in Ventral Cavity • Pericardium: Surrounds the heart

• Examples of Serous Membranes in Ventral Cavity • Pericardium: Surrounds the heart • Visceral pericardium • Parietal pericardium • Pleura : Surrounds each lung • Visceral pleura • Parietal pleura • Peritoneum: Surrounds most of abdominopelvic cavity • Visceral peritoneum • Parietal peritoneum © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. Visceral pericardium Heart

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. Visceral pericardium Heart Pericardial cavity Parietal pericardium Air space Balloon b The heart projects into the pericardial cavity like a fist pushed into a balloon. The attachment site, corresponding to the wrist of the hand, lies at the connection between the heart and major blood vessels. The width of the pericardial cavity is exaggerated here; normally the visceral and parietal layers are separated only by a thin layer of pericardial fluid. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. ANTERIOR Pericardial cavity

Relationships among the Subdivisions of the Body Cavities of the Trunk. ANTERIOR Pericardial cavity Parietal pleura (outside) Pleural cavity (space) Heart Left lung Right lung Visceral pleura (inside) Mediastinum Spinal cord POSTERIOR c A transverse section through the thoracic cavity, showing the central location of the pericardial cavity. The mediastinum and pericardial cavity lie between the two pleural cavities. Note that this transverse or crosssectional view is oriented as though the observer were standing at the subject’s feet and looking toward the subject’s head. This inferior view of a transverse section is the standard presentation for clinical images. Unless otherwise noted, transverse or cross-sectional views in this text use this same orientation (see Spotlight Figure 1 -10). © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

A Cursory Look at the major Organ Systems © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

A Cursory Look at the major Organ Systems © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.