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Beakers • Beakers are used for holding various chemicals. • Not for measuring precisely. • Sizes vary.
Graduated Cylinder • Used to precisely measure the volume of liquids or run experiments. • Read from the meniscus at eye level. • Plastic ring always on top if applicable. • Sizes vary.
Erlenmeyer Flask • Used to approximately measure the volume various liquids. • Useful for mixing by swirling • Sizes vary.
Volumetric Flask • Used to prepare precise standard solutions. • They are only good for 1 specific volume. • Comes in many sizes
Reagent Bottle • Used to store, transport, or view reagents such as acids or bases.
Rubber Stoppers • Used to close flasks and test tubes. • The holes allow the insertion of glass tubing, probes, or thermometers as needed by the experiment.
Test Tubes and Rack • Used to hold chemicals/tubes while experimenting. • Not for measuring precisely. • Waft! • Aim away from faces. • Sizes vary. • Label tubes.
Buret and Buret Clamp • Used for precisely measuring dispensed liquids • Holds buret to ring stand. Double buret clamp Buret Single buret clamp
Ring Stand Ring Clamps • Base/Pole of set -up for experimenting. • Holds glassware in place for heating or evaporating.
Test Tube Brushes • Cleaning. • You must clean tubes before and after you use.
Test Tube Holder • Used for carrying or holding hot test tubes.
Hot Plate • Used to heat substances.
Bunsen Burner • Used to heat substances quickly or if > 400 o. C is needed. • Do not use with flammable substances.
Wire Mesh • Used to absorb and spread the heat of flame. • Keeps glassware from cracking and breaking. • Part of ring stand set-up.
Crucible and Cover • Used for heating substances. • Can withstand high direct heat.
Crucible Tongs • Used to carry crucible.
Beaker Tongs • Used to carry beakers.
Mortar and Pestle • Used to grind substances into powder or slurry.
Scoopula • Used to scoop chemical powders. • Not a measuring instrument. • Ours do not have handles.
Stirring Rods • Used to stir substances. • Clean in between uses.
Watch Glass • Used to show chemical reactions.
Centrifuge • Used to separate suspensions (solids from liquids).
Funnel • Used to safely transfer substances from one container to another.
Wash Bottle • Usually contains deionized water. • Handy for rinsing glassware and for dispensing small amounts of d. H 2 O for chemical reactions.
Goggles and Apron • Used to protect your eyes and clothing from damage. • These are a must in lab!!
Inoculating or Flame Loop • Used to collect samples from colonies (ex. Bacteria) • Also used to test the spectra of chemicals.
Digital Balance • Used to accurately measure mass. • Only up to 200 g in our labs.
Pipet, Pump, and Bulb • Used to precisely measure the volume of liquids in small amounts.
Berol Pipet • Disposable pipets used to transfer small amounts of chemicals. • Graduated pipets can precisely measure small amounts of chemicals.
Capillary Tubes • Used to collect liquid through the process of capillary action.
Three major ways in laboratory safety Preparation Experiment Clean up
Collection of samples The following considerations should be noted during sampling: 1. Sampling types (air, water, soil, sediment, biota and etc…. ) 2. Sample label (An unique sample number (ID), description, Date and Time of Sampling, Location of Sampling (Latitude and longitude or site and station name), Sampler name and etc…. ) 3. Sample container (from polyethylene, glass or plastic bottles, Clean and Cold conditions, sterilized and etc…. ) 4. Sampling devices (Cores, Grabs, Net, and etc…. ) 5. Know sampling method 6. Know properties of the sample (High density, High diversity and High spreading along the lake. "Replication") 7. Taking samples should be representative of the polluted area.
How to collect polluted sample? 1. Determination of wind direction 2. The area divided too many squares. 3. Determination of pollution source in squares. 4. Repaginations of collecting system in all squares to reverse of wind direction. 5. Determination of collecting time.
Collections of samples ABIOTIC sample 1 - Water sample 1 - Flora sample 2 - Sediment sample 2 - Fauna sample
I- Collection of water samples: Water samples were collected from surface directly by handling and from subsurface by Nansen bottle or La Motte bottle seasonally or monthly according to the protocol or objectives. After collection, water samples were kept in cleaned stoppered plastic bottles for latter examination.
La Motte Bottle Grabs bottom sampler Nansen bottle
II- Collection of sediment sample Sediment samples were collected from the bottom of selected stations using Grabs or Corers Dredge bottom sampler at the same time of water collection. After collection, sediment samples were transferred into the laboratory in plastic bags.
III- Collection of Biota samples: a- Flora They can be divided into five groups namely floating plants, lushes, weeds, algae and phytoplankton. All of them collected directly by handling excepted phytoplankton, which collected by planktonic net. b- Fauna The fauna can be divided into three main groups: zooplankton, infauna and fishes. Zooplankton can be collected by planktonic net. Infauna can be collected by dredge sampler. Fish can be collected according to fishing method. c- Microbiological samples (water, sediment and biota) can be collected by using specific sterilizer containers.
Cast net Scope net
Prepared By DR. Mahmoud Mahrous