- Slides: 35
L-6 Lymphatic System and Defense Mechanism (Immune Response) Dr Than Kyaw 12 March 2011
Lymphatic system Includes: 1. lymphatic vessels 2. Lymphoid tissues - lymph node - nodules - lymph patches of mucosa of intestinal, respiratory, reproductive systems; also k/s mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) - e. g. Payer’s patches - spleen - thymus - tonsils
Lymphatic system of the cow
Characteristics of Lymphatic vessels - Distributed throughout the body - Have blind beginnings (lymph capillaries) - In interstitial spaces (between the cells and outside of the blood vessels) - similar structure to blood capillaries and veins
Characteristics of Lymphatic vessels – One way system toward the heart (unidirectional flow) – No pump – Lymph moves toward the heart by • Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscles • Rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in the lymphatic vessel walls • Pressure changes in the thoracic cavity during respiration -- Largest lymphatic vessels join with the large veins just cranial to the heart -- no lymph vessels in the brain (CSF)
Lymph • Lymph is usually a clear, colorless fluid, similar to blood plasma but low in protein • Its composition varies from place to place; e. g. - after a meal, lymph draining from the small intestine, milky lymph (chyle), due to lipid content. • Lymph may contain numerous lymphocytes, macrophages, inorganic salts, glucose, and other nitrogenous substances • May also contains viruses, bacteria, cellular debris and even traveling cancer cells. • Neutrophils – not normally present in large numbers except during acute infections
Lymph node • Various sizes; along lymph v/s • Surrounded by connective tissue capsule which sends fine vascular fibrous trabeculae into the substance of the node. • Roughly divided into 1. Cortex 2. Paracortex 3. Medulla Each with large number of lymphocytes and macrophages 1. Cortex -- Lymphocytes arranged in nodules -- primary nodules – dark staining -- secondry nodules – light staining - Germinal center - rapid B cell proliferation
Lymph node Stopped lecture 2. Paracortex -- Deep to the cortex -- Primaily T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (a type of phagocyte and a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC)) 3. Medulla -- Lymphocytes arranged in medullary cord -- primarily – accumulation of plasma cells Dendritic cell: A special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. Plasma cell: A type of immune cell that makes large amounts of a specific antibody. Plasma cells develop from B cells that have been activated.
Structure of a typical lymph node
A lymph node showing nodular and diffuse lymphatic tissue.
GC Lymph node dog 1 = Capsule 2 = Cortical sinus 4 = Deep cortex 7 = Lymph nodule 8 = Medullary cord 9 = Medullary sinus 12 = Subcapsular sinus 13 = Trabeculae GC = Germinal center
A Lymph node of Pig What are the differences? A Lymph node of cow
Lymph node Subcapsular sinus -- space immediately deep to the capsule -- communicate with other sinuses of cortex and medulla -- lymph delivered by afferent lymph vessels enters subcapsular sinus and slowly filtered through the cortex and medulla -- finally emerge at the hilus of the node
Lymphocytes of the lymph node • T Cells (T lymphocytes) - attack foreign cells or body cells infected by viruses; T cells mature and divide in the thymus - responsible for cell-mediated immunity (protection directly from living cells) • B Cells (B lymphocytes) responsible for antibody-mediated immunity (=humoral immunity); a percentage of circulating B lymphocytes mature into plasma cells; plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies (immunoglobulins) which destroy antigens • NK Cells (natural killer cells) - attack foreign cells and cells infected with viruses and cancer cells; also abnormal cells of body
LYMPHOCYTE and MEMORY • Some B and T cells have what is called “memory”. • Memory Cells have the ability to divide on short notice to produce more of all of the B and T cells. • This is the basis of acquired immunity. • B and T cells amplified in response to antigen are reserved and circulate in lymphatic system. . for years or even life. • If same antigen enters body again immune response will take place rapidly and without full-blown illness.
Lymph node and infection -- A LN may reflect local health condition -- E. g. LN of infected area -- enlarged -- Germinal centers produce additional lymphocytes in response to antigens (bacteria, virus) delivered to the node -- Frequently associated with pain on palpationn -- An enlargement of LN indicates infection -- at least 99% of the pathogens in the lymph are removed ** Neoplastic (cancerous) cells may spread through the lymphatic channels.
Five classes immunoglobulin (Ig) Ig. G- active in blood against bacteria and viruses helps activate complement helps phagocytes eliminate antigens most common antibody in the blood can pass v/s and placenta Ig. M - reacts with certain antigens, usually on first exposure Ig. A - most common in mucosa Ig. D -- rare in blood usually found on B cells (not released) may be involved in B cell activation Ig. E -- rare in blood involved in allergic reactions sticks to mast cells, which release inflammatory substances
Hemal node • Small dark red or black nodes in cattle and sheep • Usually located in the dorsal parts of the abdominal and thoracic cavities • Resembles LN but re found on the course of blood vessels and contains only blood.
Functions of lymphatic system Has multiple interrelated functions: - responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues - absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system - transports WBCs to and from the lymph nodes into the bones - transports antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated. - body’s most important defence mechanism against invasion by pathogens - production of immunoglobulin - filters lymph and blood
Spleen - Largest lymphoid organ Functions - Contractile – expresses RBCs into the blood vessels - The only organ to filter the blood - An active destruction site for RBCs (MPS – mononuclear phagocytic system) - storage of iron - initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to antigens in circulating blood - acts as a blood reservoir • Not essential for life • Splenectomy - bone marrow takes place its function
Spleen RED PULP vs. WHITE PULP: Red pulp - Area containing a large number of RBCs - Structurally consists of a network of reticular fibers rich in macrophages - mainly concerned with disposing of worn-out red blood cells and bloodborn pathogens White pulp - Area that resembles lymphoid nodules - Composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and involved with the immune functions of the spleen
Thymus - An organ of immature animal - Undergo involution at puberty - Lies cranial to the heart - Accumulation of lymphocytes (k/s thymocytes) - Embryonic lymphocyte undergo differentiation and leave to populate many other lymphatic tissues of the body
TONSILS -- Unencapsulated aggregate of lymphoid nodules associated with the pharyngeal mucosa -- Lack afferent lymphatic vessels -- rely on the proximity of epithelial surface to make contact with antigens -- have crypts that increase surface area
PEYER’S PATCHES -- Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine -- Contain lymphocytes and macrophages which remove microorganisms, debris, and antigens from the digestive tract Note: Athough the terms tonsils and Peyer’s patches for phayrnx and small intestine respectively used, identical histological structures are found in the mucous membranes of prepuce and vagina etc.
Chicken -- no lymph nodes -- Bursa of Fabricius : a sac like dorsal diverticulum of the proctodeum -- unique to birds. -- characterized by tall, thick mucosal folds (plicae) filled with numerous polyhedral follicles. -- Each follicle, composed of lymphatic tissue, is divided into a cortex and medulla.
Filtration and edema • Recall lecture on flow • The balance between pressure changes between arterioles and veinules (tissue space)
Edema - Increased venous pressure leads to increased interstitial fluid volume (edema). - 3 counteracting effects (Negative feedback) against edema. 1. An increase in interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure reduces the rate of filtration back toward normal. 2. An increase in lymph flow reduces interstitial fluid volume back toward normal. 3. A decrease in interstitial fluid protein concentration reduces the rate of filtration back toward normal.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS Cardiovascular Lymphatic Derived from mesoderm Transport System Has a pump (heart) No pump Arteries No equivalent Veins for return Lymph vessels for return Veins have valves Lymph vessels have valves Carries RC, WBC, plasma Carries WBC, plasma