Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity
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Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1
Kingdoms and Christianity The Byzantine Empire Preview • Starting Points Map: Spread of Christianity • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Emperors Rule in Constantinople • Faces of History: Justinian and Theodora • Byzantine Culture • The Empire Declines Section 1
Kingdoms and Christianity Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 The Byzantine Empire Main Idea The Byzantine Empire, once the eastern half of the Roman Empire, was held together for centuries by strong leaders, profitable trade, and the influence of Christianity. Reading Focus • How did Byzantine emperors rule their empire from Constantinople? • What were some important features of Byzantine culture? • What led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire?
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Emperors Rule in Constantinople—Greek for “The City of Constantine”—became the capital of the roman Empire under Emperor Constantine I. A New Rome • Constantinople seat of Eastern Roman Empire • Became known as Byzantine Empire • Remained capital of Eastern Empire long after Rome fell • Even before fall of Rome, Constantinople larger, richer city than Rome Location • Location on Bosporus Strait helped control trade between Asia, Europe • Also helped guard city from attack – Sea protected city on two sides – Heavily fortified walls protected landward side
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Reclaiming Western Empire Claim to Empire Military Action • Western part of empire still claimed by eastern emperors • Military action needed to accomplish Justinian’s goal • Byzantine emperor Justinian I wanted to restore original Roman Empire • First had to reconquer North African territories taken by Germanic tribe, Vandals Belisarius • 533, Justinian sent ships, troops to northern Africa • Troops led by top general, Belisarius Successes • By 534, fleet had recaptured African region, absorbed back into Roman Empire • 535, Belisarius led troops to Italy to retake that region
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity Rebellion at Home Facing Problems • Justinian, wife Theodora served as co-rulers of empire • At home, faced threat from rebels • Many resented Justinian’s efforts to reform empire’s administration • 532, opposition led to rebellion called Nika Revolt Rebellion Quelled • Two factions led revolt: Greens representing lower classes, Blues upper classes • Constantinople in flames, Justinian prepared to flee • Theodora stood firm, refused to flee, back down, convinced Justinian to do same • Belisarius attacked rioters, slaughtered them by thousands
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Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Achievements • Nika Revolt destroyed parts of Constantinople • Gave Justinian, Theodora chance to rebuilt city with new monuments • Most important new building, church, Hagia Sophia, “Holy Wisdom” • Spectacular blend of domes, arches; building still stands Justinian’s Code • Justinian set up commission that codified, systematically arranged, empire’s existing laws, legal opinions into clear system • Corpus Juris Civilis had four parts; first part included all existing constitutions from time of Emperor Hadrian • Code later updated, expanded to include Justinian’s laws as well
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Changes after Justinian • Justinian’s achievements many, but did not last – Died 565, left government nearly bankrupt from expenses of taking back empire’s territory – Had expanded empire beyond what government could effectively administer – Western provinces fell to migrating tribes after his death • Reign of Heraclius began 610 – Heraclius defeated Persians on eastern border – Settled Croats, Serbs within Balkan frontiers to west to act as buffers against new invaders – Croats, Serbs converted to Christianity, extending Byzantine influence into region
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Summarize What did Justinian accomplish during his reign? Answer(s): put down the Nika Revolt, built the Hagia Sophia, reformed Roman law
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Byzantine Culture The Role of the Emperor • Two institutions central to Byzantine culture—emperor, Christianity • Emperor, priest-king, considered deputy of Jesus Christ on earth, his co-ruler • Emperor responsible for both civil, religious law Changing Culture • Example of emperor’s influence reflected in empire’s changing culture • People of Constantinople referred to selves as Roman, but Greek cultural influences grew stronger End to Roman Traditions • Emperor Heraclius brought official end to Roman traditions • Made Greek official language, replacing Latin • Replaced old Roman imperial titles with Greek ones
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity Religion and the Arts • Christianity greatly influenced artistic life of Byzantines • Art, architecture, literature based on religious themes • Byzantine art often featured saints, figures from Bible • Most art in form of mosaics • Mosaics decorated floors, walls, ceilings Stylized Art • Nature of Byzantine mosaics, painting changed over time • Became more detailed, stylized • Symbols used for common themes • Examples: hand above cross, hand of God; 12 lambs, Christian flock, community, on earth Architecture • Religion force behind Byzantine architecture; churches built by placing round dome over square foundation • Rested dome on corner supports, not walls, as in Hagia Sophia • Influenced styles in Europe, Asia
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity Religious Conflicts In the 700 s the use of art in churches deeply divided society. This religious controversy threatened the strength of both church and state. The controversy involved the use of icons—paintings or sculptures of sacred figures. Icons and Controversy Iconoclast Movement • Churches contained beautiful icons • 726, Emperor Leo III forbade use of icons, ordered destruction • Some Christians objected to their presence, believed use too close to non-Christian worship of idols • People called iconoclasts, “icon breaker” • Iconoclast movement unpopular with many in church hierarchy • Since few could read, clergy found sacred images useful for teaching Reaction against iconoclasm raged on and off until 843 when a council settled the issue by accepting icons. The dispute played a crucial role in the growing divide between the emperor in Constantinople and the pope in Rome.
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 The Church Splits Growing Divisions • Over time, number of issues that divided eastern, western churches grew • Use of Greek one difference; theological differences also emerged • Eastern church allowed clergy to marry, western church did not Church Governance • Pope in Rome, patriarchs in Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem were church leaders; emperor oversaw church law, did not govern church • Byzantines did not accept pope as supreme authority over religious issues Schism • 1054, differences became so large, schism, split, occurred between churches • Church in east became Orthodox Church, west remained Roman Catholic • Later hurt Byzantine Empire, could not rely on western help against invaders
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Summarize What led to the split between the eastern and western churches? Answer(s): theological differences, including use of icons; use of Greek; allowing members of the clergy to marry
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity The Empire Declines As far back as the reign of Heraclius, Muslims had threatened the empire. Over time, Islam, pressure from migrating tribes, and internal conflict and corruption brought about the Byzantine Empire’s fall. Invaders in Empire Century of Crises Period of Calm • Byzantines constantly attacked on northern borders • 600 s, provinces of Egypt, Syria fell to Muslim conquerors • Leo III stopped advancing Muslim forces 718, 740 • Constantine V won victories against Bulgars; successors failed to maintain his gains • By 800 s, Byzantines had endured century of crises • Macedonian dynasty ruled 867 to 1056 • Emperors improved peasantry, created law school • Extended Byzantine rule, Balkans, Bulgars • Established Orthodox Christianity in southeastern Europe
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity Internal Weaknesses Civilian Viewpoint Military Viewpoint • Macedonian dynasty began to decline after about 150 years • Focus on culture came at a cost • Conflicts symptoms of divide within Byzantine society • Members of military aristocracy saw things differently • Constantinople government composed of well-educated, cultured aristocrats • Supported emperors who restrained military, used energies to make Constantinople center of culture, learning • Based in provinces, more aware of encroaching danger than government in capital • Supported emperors who had been soldiers themselves
Section 1 Kingdoms and Christianity Final Decline Continuing strife between the military and the Constantinople government weakened the empire, making it vulnerable to challengers from the outside. New Enemies Byzantine Legacy • Seljuk Turks conquering areas on empire’s borders • 1453, Constantinople fell to Ottoman Turks • 1071, Turks defeated Byzantine army at Manzikert; permanently weakened Byzantines in eastern Asia Minor • Turks renamed city Istanbul; Hagia Sophia became mosque • Same year, also lost last outposts in Italy, ending presence in west • By 1391, empire reduced to Constantinople, outlying districts • Ottomans had gained important seat of power, spread influence into Greece, Balkans • Byzantine legacy: preservation of ancient Greco-Roman heritage; buffer between Christian West, Muslim East
Kingdoms and Christianity Section 1 Identifying Cause and Effect What was the connection between the rise of Islam and the fall of the Byzantine Empire? Answer(s): possible answer—As Islam spread and gained followers, Muslim invaders threatened the Byzantines.