Kingdom Monera BACTERIA BLUEGREEN ALGAE C Kingdom Monera

  • Slides: 38
Download presentation
Kingdom Monera BACTERIA & BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

Kingdom Monera BACTERIA & BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

C

C

Kingdom Monera: The Prokaryotes BACTERIA - single-celled prokaryotes - among the simplest forms of

Kingdom Monera: The Prokaryotes BACTERIA - single-celled prokaryotes - among the simplest forms of living things - w/ few organelles or specialized cell structures - believed to be the most abundant organism on earth

Bacterial Structure: FLAGELLUM- long and slender appendage; for locomotion CELL WALL- provides rigidity, protection

Bacterial Structure: FLAGELLUM- long and slender appendage; for locomotion CELL WALL- provides rigidity, protection and identification CAPSULE/ SLIME LAYER- contributes in protection and virulence

Bacterial Structure: CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE- controls what enters and exits the cell NUCLEAR REGION- carries

Bacterial Structure: CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE- controls what enters and exits the cell NUCLEAR REGION- carries genetic information RIBOSOMES- involved in protein synthesis

Bacterial Structure: PILI/ FIMBRIAE- shorter appendages which confer adhesive properties MESOSOMES- large infoldings of

Bacterial Structure: PILI/ FIMBRIAE- shorter appendages which confer adhesive properties MESOSOMES- large infoldings of cell membrane; increase surface area ENDOSPORES- highly resistant body formed during extreme conditions

Bacterial Shapes 1. Bacillus – rodshaped 2. Coccus – sphereshaped 3. Spirillum – spiralshaped

Bacterial Shapes 1. Bacillus – rodshaped 2. Coccus – sphereshaped 3. Spirillum – spiralshaped

Staphylococcus sp.

Staphylococcus sp.

Bacillus sp.

Bacillus sp.

Spirochetes

Spirochetes

Bacterial Reproduction: a. Binary Fission asexual reproduction in which a bacterium replicates its chromosomes

Bacterial Reproduction: a. Binary Fission asexual reproduction in which a bacterium replicates its chromosomes and divide into two b. Budding asexual reproduction in which an outgrowth develops into another individual

Bacterial Reproduction: c. Spore formation/ sporulation formation of endospores which are resistant to unfavorable

Bacterial Reproduction: c. Spore formation/ sporulation formation of endospores which are resistant to unfavorable conditions d. Conjugation A bacterium transfers some DNA to another bacterium, thus changing the genes of the latter

Examples Pathogenic bacteria 1. Streptococcus pyrogene – sore throat 2. Clostridium botulinum – paralysis

Examples Pathogenic bacteria 1. Streptococcus pyrogene – sore throat 2. Clostridium botulinum – paralysis due to food poisoning 3. Treponema pallidum – syphyllis

Beneficial bacteria 1. Escherichia coli – colon bacterium 2. Rhizobium sp. - nitrogenfixing bacterium

Beneficial bacteria 1. Escherichia coli – colon bacterium 2. Rhizobium sp. - nitrogenfixing bacterium

Nutrition: A. Autotrophic – make their own food from inorganic substances • Photosynthetic –

Nutrition: A. Autotrophic – make their own food from inorganic substances • Photosynthetic – contains chlorophyll • Chemosynthetic – make their own food by using energy from chemical reactions involving sulfur, iron, and nitrogen

Nutrition: B. Heterotrophic – obtain organic matter from their environment for food • Saprophytic

Nutrition: B. Heterotrophic – obtain organic matter from their environment for food • Saprophytic – feed on dead organic matter • Parasitic – feed on other living things

Conditions for Bacterial Growth v Nutritional requirement v Temperature v Moisture v Exposure to

Conditions for Bacterial Growth v Nutritional requirement v Temperature v Moisture v Exposure to sunlight v Chemicals

Significance of Bacteria q Food industry q Medicine q Leather tanning q Agriculture q

Significance of Bacteria q Food industry q Medicine q Leather tanning q Agriculture q Decomposition of living things q Some can cause diseases

Some Bacterial Diseases • • • Rheumatic fever Gonorrhea Pneumonia Meningitis Diphtheria Thypoid fever

Some Bacterial Diseases • • • Rheumatic fever Gonorrhea Pneumonia Meningitis Diphtheria Thypoid fever Bubonic plague Tetanus Tuberculosis • • • Anthrax Food poisoning Leprosy Diarrhea Conjunctivitis Sore throat Tonsillitis Gas gangrene Whooping cough

SPIROCHAETES - spiral-shaped, w/o a rigid cell wall and move by rotating, corkscrew motion

SPIROCHAETES - spiral-shaped, w/o a rigid cell wall and move by rotating, corkscrew motion - causes syphilis, yaws, pinta, infectious jaundice

MYCOPLASMAS/ PPLO - smallest known organisms that are capable of growth & reproduction outside

MYCOPLASMAS/ PPLO - smallest known organisms that are capable of growth & reproduction outside of living host cells - causes primary atypical pneumonia in humans

RICKETTSIAE - obligate intracellular parasites - cause typhus fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted

RICKETTSIAE - obligate intracellular parasites - cause typhus fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Trench fever Tsutsugamushi fever

THE ARCHAEOBACTERIA

THE ARCHAEOBACTERIA

Comparison of Viruses and Bacteria nucleus present metabolism Virus No Bacteria No No Yes

Comparison of Viruses and Bacteria nucleus present metabolism Virus No Bacteria No No Yes response to stimuli multiply evolve No Yes Yes Yes

BLUE-GREEN ALGAE Ø prokaryotic Ø unicellular: colonial or filamentous Ø w/ chlorophyll, phycocyanin or

BLUE-GREEN ALGAE Ø prokaryotic Ø unicellular: colonial or filamentous Ø w/ chlorophyll, phycocyanin or phycoeryhtrin Ø found in fresh or marine waters & damp soil Ø food for fish; may cause pollution; fertilize soil

The cyanobacteria are autotrophs and obtain nutrition through photosynthesis. They possess chlorophyll a and

The cyanobacteria are autotrophs and obtain nutrition through photosynthesis. They possess chlorophyll a and other pigments but lack plastids. (Remember, they are prokaryotic). These organisms are sometimes responsible for algal blooms in polluted lakes.

 Figure 3. Blue-green algae washed ashore on a small pond, 1994.

Figure 3. Blue-green algae washed ashore on a small pond, 1994.

 Lyngbya colonies (blue-green algae)

Lyngbya colonies (blue-green algae)

 Large Algal Bloom

Large Algal Bloom

Algal Bloom Close-up

Algal Bloom Close-up

More on Cyanobacteria

More on Cyanobacteria