Kingdom Fungi Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria AP Biology

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Kingdom: Fungi Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria AP Biology Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 2007 -2008

Kingdom: Fungi Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria AP Biology Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 2007 -2008 Common ancestor

General characteristics § Classification criteria eukaryotes u heterotrophs u § feed by absorption u

General characteristics § Classification criteria eukaryotes u heterotrophs u § feed by absorption u mostly multicellular § except unicellular yeasts u cell wall § chitin w rigid polysaccharide u AP Biology sexual & asexual reproduction

Fungal Structure § Fungal body u mycelium § thread-like cells § hyphae § Cells

Fungal Structure § Fungal body u mycelium § thread-like cells § hyphae § Cells u multiple nuclei § Cell wall u chitin § just like crab shells AP Biology

Internal structure § Eukaryotic cells u long, thread-like cells § filamentous u incomplete divisions

Internal structure § Eukaryotic cells u long, thread-like cells § filamentous u incomplete divisions between cells § septum u multiple nuclei Aaaaah, structure–function relationship! AP Biology chitin cell wall septum pore nuclei

Modes of Nutrition § Heterotrophic fungal hypha secrete digestive enzymes u feed by absorption

Modes of Nutrition § Heterotrophic fungal hypha secrete digestive enzymes u feed by absorption u § parasites w feeding on living creatures plant cell § predators membrane w paralyzing prey § decomposer w breakdown dead remains AP Biology Fungi live IN their food! It’s like you living in Chocolate cake! plant cell wall

Fungal Diversity y m o idi tr hy C AP Biology ta o c

Fungal Diversity y m o idi tr hy C AP Biology ta o c y m go Zy Fungi ta o c o ta o c my Ba i d i s ta o c As c y m o

Ecological Roles § Decomposers u recycle nutrients § Symbiotic Relationships u lichen § fungi

Ecological Roles § Decomposers u recycle nutrients § Symbiotic Relationships u lichen § fungi + algae w cyanobacteria or green algae § pioneer species in ecosystems § makes soil from bare rock u Lichens are fungi that have discovered agriculture! mycorrhizae § fungi + plants § enables plants to absorb more water AP Biology

Mycorrhizae § Critical role in plant growth u extends water absorption of roots without

Mycorrhizae § Critical role in plant growth u extends water absorption of roots without mycorrhizae Endomycorrhiza AP Biology Ectomycorrhiza with mycorrhizae

Reproduction § Asexual u budding in yeast § Sexual u spores § spread by

Reproduction § Asexual u budding in yeast § Sexual u spores § spread by wind u joining of + & – haploid spores AP Biology

Zygomycete (Bread Mold) Life Cycle spores (haploid) mating strain hypha sporangium MEIOSIS (2 n)

Zygomycete (Bread Mold) Life Cycle spores (haploid) mating strain hypha sporangium MEIOSIS (2 n) diploid AP Biology (n) haploid FUSION of + and – gametangia mating strain

Basidiomycete Life Cycle fruiting body gills lined with basidia basidium (n + n) dikaryotic

Basidiomycete Life Cycle fruiting body gills lined with basidia basidium (n + n) dikaryotic 2 n (diploid) (n) haploid strain AP Biology FUSION of and hyphae strain zygote MEIOSIS spores

Fairy Rings AP Biology

Fairy Rings AP Biology

The FIRST Antibiotics AP Biology

The FIRST Antibiotics AP Biology