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Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata
Kingdom Animalia: General Characteristics • • • All multicellular All eukaryotic cells All heterotrophic ingest food Carbohydrate reserve is glycogen Lack cell walls
• Have highly differentiated body cells organized into tissues/organ systems for specialized functions such as: - Digestion – Internal transport – Gas exchange – Movement – Coordination – Excretion – Reproduction
• Reproduction is usually SEXUAL • Flagellated sperm fertilizes non-motile, larger eggs • DIPLOID stage dominates life cycle • Zygote undergoes series of mitotic divisions called CLEAVAGE, which produces a BLASTULA in most animals • GASTRULATION occurs after blastula is formed (embryonic forms of adult body tissues formed during it) • Development usually direct to maturation
• Found in SW, FW, and terrestrial habitats Each of these habitats present special problems/challenges to the animals living there • 11 – 35 Phyla total (Kingdom Animalia) Invertebrates = 95% Vertebrates = 5% >1 million species
Symmetry Types • Asymmetrical • No definite “head/tail” end, no left/right sides. • Amoeba proteus
Spherical • “Round” No L/R, H/T Yeast cell
Radial • Show polarity (H/T), but no L/R sides
Bilateral • Definite head/tail ends AND left/right sides. One side is usually a “mirror image” of the other side
Anatomical Directions • • • Dorsal: top Ventral: bottom (belly) Anterior: front (head) end Posterior: back (tail) end Lateral: side surfaces
Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata • • • Fish Amphibians Reptiles Bird Mammals
Vertebrate evolution was from water to land!
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny!
Chordate General Characteristics • Endoskeleton of bone or cartilage; jointed and flexible. Consists of: Vertebral Column (backbone): replaced notochord. Surrounds and protects dorsal nerve cord. Cranium encloses brain. Vertebral column + Cranium = Axial Skeleton
Girdles • Groups of bones that connect limbs to axial skeleton • Pectoral Girdle: connect arms, forearms to axial skeleton
• Pelvic Girdle: connect legs and forelegs to axial skeleton
• Limbs: Usually paired. Legs, wings, flippers…. Girdles + Limbs = Appendicular Skeleton
2 Major Body Regions = Head & Trunk Head contains brain & sense organs …. . Cephalization
Specialized Vertebrate Body Systems • Integumentary Outer body covering. Protection & temperature regulation. • Skeletal Bones, cartilage. Protection, support, anchor for muscle tissue.
• Muscular Provides body movement. Forms organ walls. • Digestive Physically and chemically breaks food down into usable liquid nutrients • Excretory Processes, then rids body of various wastes (solid, liquid, gaseous)
• Respiratory Gas exchange. Gets O 2 to all cells, carries CO 2 from them. • Circulatory “Internal transport. ” Ventral heart. Arteries, Veins, Capillaries. Closed system. Blood contains RBCs with hemoglobin. • Immune Detects & destroys invaders of the body.
• Endocrine Glands. Produce & secrete hormones that regulate body processes. • Nervous Sensory perception & voluntary movement • Reproductive Produces gametes though meiosis
Vertebrate Lines of Development • The movement to land caused many changes. What changes had to occur due to the new demands of life on land? Gills to lungs Stronger bones & muscles Reinforced joints Reproduction… why? ? ?