- Slides: 36
Kingdom Animalia Notes
Domain - Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata (this is the largest group of vertebrates) Class…… Order…. F G S
There are three groups of chordates (largest phylum in the animal kingdom): 1. Lancelets 2. Tunicates 3. Vertebrates (largest group)
Lancelets While lancelets resemble fish externally, they are simpler, invertebrate marine animals with no heart, no paired fins, and essentially no brain. Considered a precursor to vertebrates, in place of a spinal column lancelets have a notochord, or a stiff rod that provides support for muscles during swimming.
Tunicates The Tunicates are commonly known as "sea squirts. " The body of an adult tunicate is quite simple, being essentially a sack with two siphons through which water enters and exits. It exhibits all chordate characteristics: it has a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail. This "tadpole larva" will swim for some time; in many tunicates, it eventually attaches to a hard substrate, it loses its tail and ability to move, and its nervous system largely disintegrates. .
1. Who make up the largest group of chordates? A. B. C. D. Invertebrates Vertebrates Lancelets Tunicates
Vertebrates: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Have a backbone Have well-developed brain protected by a skull Some are endotherms While others are ectotherms Examples: a. Fish (coldblooded / ectotherms) b. Amphibians (______/_____) c. Reptiles (______/_____) d. Birds (______/_____) e. Mammals (______/_____)
Example of Vertebrates: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fish (ectotherms / cold-blooded) Amphibians (ectotherms / cold-blooded) Reptiles (ectotherms / cold-blooded) Birds (endotherms / warm-blooded) Mammals (endotherms / warm-blooded)
2. As a human, you are an _____. A. Endotherm B. Ectotherm
Fish: Three groups of fish: 1. Jawless (lampreys and hagfish) 2. Cartilaginous (sharks, rays and skates) 3. Bony (catfish, bass, carp, etc…)
Jawless Fish Lampreys Hagfish
Cartilaginous Fish Sharks Rays and Skates
3. True or False: A shark is a fish. A. True B. False
Amphibians: They were the first vertebrates to live on land Amphibians gulp air into their lungs AND by absorbing O through their skin. 2
Amphibians (means: double life) start life in the water, then b/c of metamorphosis they lose their gills and develop lungs & legs to live on dry land.
Amphibians include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Caecilians Salamanders Frogs Toads
Caecilians are a legless, tailless tropical amphibian/ Though eel-like or earthworm-like in appearance, they are neither of these. They have vertebrate characteristics such as jaws and teeth. Their eyes are nearly functionless and even nonexistant on some. They have a groove on either side of the head which contains a retractable sensory tentacle. Most are between 5 to 14 inches long and 1/4 to 1 inches in diameter.
Frogs and Toads Which is the toad and which is the frog?
Frogs and Toads Frog Longer forelegs and slimy skin Toad Shorter foreleg and dry, warty skin
4. What process allows a tadpole to lose their gills and develop lungs in order to live on land? A. B. C. D. Innate processes Learned processes Metamorphosis Evolution
Reptiles: Reptiles evolved from amphibians by adapting to life on dry land – they have thick, scaly skin that protects them from drying out
Reptile embryos are protected by a tough, leathery egg Reptiles include: turtles, tortoises, lizards, snakes, crocodiles and alligators Some scientists think that birds and mammals evolved from early reptiles
Reptiles Turtle or Tortoise?
Reptiles Tortoise Spends most of life on land Turtle Spends most of life in the water
5. What process (also known as change over time) allowed amphibians to slowly change into reptiles and adapt to living on dry land? A. Evolution B. Adapting C. Learning
Birds: Birds are endotherms that are covered in feathers. There are two types of feathers: down and contour. Flying takes a lot of energy, so birds must eat a high-energy diet and breathe efficiently Birds are lightweight. Their skeleton is rigid and hollow – this helps with flight.
Mammals: Mammal characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mammary glands Endothermic (warm-blooded) Hair or fur Specialized teeth Need oxygen for energy Large, well-developed brains Reproduce sexually
3 Types of mammals: 1. Monotremes (platypus & echidna) 2. Marsupials (kangaroo & koala) 3. Placentals (humans, dogs, elephants…)
Monotremes lay eggs and feed their young milk through openings in their skin Marsupials give birth to live young, but they aren’t fully developed so they live in a pouch until they are more developed
Monotremes and Marsupials
Placentals: Develop inside the mother’s placenta for a period of time. This period of time is called the gestation period – for humans it is 9 months The placenta is the fluid-filled sac that feeds the developing embryo Placental mammals then nurse their young after birth
6. What type of mammal are you? A. Monotreme B. Marsupial C. Placental