Keys to Leucaena using SAIKS SLIKSAlike Interactive Key

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Keys to Leucaena using SAIKS (SLIKS-Alike Interactive Key Software): http: //polyploid. net/leucaena/ Patrick J.

Keys to Leucaena using SAIKS (SLIKS-Alike Interactive Key Software): http: //polyploid. net/leucaena/ Patrick J. Alexander, Dept. of Biology, New Mexico State University, [email protected] edu & Gregory A. Alexander, Bloomington, IN, [email protected] org SAIKS Leucaena keys Identification keys are typically hierarchically dichotomous (see Fig. 1). Less frequently, hierarchically polytomous (e. g. , keys to Astragalus in Jones, 1923) or two-dimensional tabular (e. g. , Table 18 in Hughes, 1998 a) keys are used. By allowing interactive rather than static interfaces, online keys allow a greater number of options. Here we present a new program called SAIKS (SLIKS-Alike Interactive Key Software; http: //galexander. org/saiks) that allows simple, free (under GNU GPLv 2 license) creation of online keys. SAIKS is a reimplementation of the functionality of SLIKS (Stinger’s Lightweight Interactive Key Software) with some modifications, including increased browser compatibility, support for subset polymorphisms, and a different (perhaps improved) interface. SAIKS uses the same data format as SLIKS and requires no additional software or infrastructure beyond a computer with webhosting capability. Fig. 1 SAIKS keys were created for the subtropical/tropical legume genus Leucaena (http: //polyploid. net/leucaena/). Leucaena includes 24 small to medium-sized tree species native to the New World. Leucaena is cultivated for its edible seeds in much of the native range, and for animal fodder in tropical areas elsewhere. A format of small, hierarchically arranged matrices was chosen for the keys to Leucaena (see Fig. 2). This is intermediate between the traditional dichotomous format and the “one big matrix” approach frequently adopted for online keys (e. g. SLIKS keys at the USDA PLANTS Identification website: http: //npdc. usda. gov/technical/plantid_wetland_mono. html; see also Fig. 3). This arrangement offers a compromise between the rigidity of dichotomous keys (which can lead to couplets that require characters not visible on the plant in hand) and the bulkiness of large matrices (which can cause a key character for the plant in hand to be buried among many irrelevant characters). Two keys were created: one using floral & vegetative characters, the other using fruit and vegetative characters. Keys are based on Hughes, 1998 a & 1998 b. Some alternative key formats; from left to right: 1 2 2 Format & interface 1) hierarchically dichotomous (outline of the key to Leucaena of Hughes, 1998 b); L. multicapitula 2) hierarchical matrices (outline of the L. lanceolata online key to Leucaena using floral & vegetative characters) L. macrophylla L. trichodes 3) single matrix (no such key yet implemented for Leucaena) L. retusa 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 6 7 7 A SAIKS key consists of two javascript files (one providing data input, the other providing the functionality of the key), a. css style file, and an html file linking the previous together. An example data input file is shown to the right. L. esculenta 8 8 L. pueblana L. pallida 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 11 13 13 14 14 L. pulverulenta L. collinsii L. lempirana L. salvadorensis L. shannonii L. magnifica 9 15 16 L. leucocephala 16 17 18 L. X mixtec 18 L. X spontanea 17 19 L. diversifolia 19 L. trichandra 15 20 L. greggii 20 21 22 L. confertiflora 22 L. cuspidata 21 23 L. involucrata 23 L. matudae Fig. 2 Key to groups Leucaena retusa Group I Leucaena lanceolata Leucaena macrophylla Leucaena multicapitulata Leucaena trichodes Leucaena greggii Group II-A Leucaena cuspidata Leucaena involucrata Leucaena matudae Group II-B Leucaena esculenta Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena pueblana Leucaena X mixtec Group II-C Leucaena collinsii Leucaena lempirana Leucaena magnifica Leucaena pulverulenta Leucaena salvadorensis Leucaena shannonii Group III Leucaena confertiflora Leucaena diversifolia Leucaena pallida Leucaena trichandra Leucaena X spontanea Fig. 3 One big matrix Leucaena collinsii Leucaena confertiflora Leucaena cuspidata Leucaena diversifolia Leucaena esculenta Leucaena greggii Leucaena involucrata Leucaena lanceolata Leucaena lempirana Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena macrophylla Leucaena magnifica Leucaena matudae Leucaena multicapitulata Leucaena pallida Leucaena pueblana Leucaena pulverulenta Leucaena retusa Leucaena salvadorensis Leucaena shannonii Leucaena trichandra Leucaena trichodes Leucaena X mixtec Leucaena X spontanea The javascript file above generates the key seen below: Acknowledgments Leucaena photos were provided by C. E. Hughes. I also thank C. D. Bailey. This work was funded by NSF grant EF 0542228 (C. D. B. ). Irrelevant Boechera images above included for no particular reason. References C. E. Hughes (1998 a) Leucaena: a genetic resources handbook Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK. C. E. Hughes (1998 b) Monograph of Leucaena (Leguminosae. Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany Monographs 55, 1 -244. M. E. Jones (1923) Revision of North American Astragalus. Published by the author, Salt Lake City. A selected character state turns green. Character states not compatible with current selections are dark blue/grey The “show chars” button selects all character states of the taxon selected. Taxa not compatible with current selections are red