Key elements begin in the classical era Classical

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 • Key elements begin in the classical era • Classical civilizations expand on

• Key elements begin in the classical era • Classical civilizations expand on the areas where the river valley civilizations began • At height of civilizations, China has about 54 million people, Rome about 52 million • Classical world is still not the whole world

Crete: Minoan Civilization • Center of Mediterranean commerce between 2200 -1450 BCE – heavily

Crete: Minoan Civilization • Center of Mediterranean commerce between 2200 -1450 BCE – heavily influenced by Phoenicia & Egypt • By 1100 BCE, under foreign domination

The Mycenaean Civilization • Indo-European nomads settled around 2000 BCE • Greece of the

The Mycenaean Civilization • Indo-European nomads settled around 2000 BCE • Greece of the Iliad and the Odyssey

Citadel of Mycenae

Citadel of Mycenae

SPARTA • Becomes powerful during 8 th & 7 th centuries BCE • Dominate

SPARTA • Becomes powerful during 8 th & 7 th centuries BCE • Dominate with powerful military machine • Discouraged social distinction, austere lifestyle • Discipline & military training important

Athens • Citizenship open to free adult males, not to foreigners, slaves, or women

Athens • Citizenship open to free adult males, not to foreigners, slaves, or women • Strong maritime trade • Pericles (443 -429 BCE) most popular & powerful democratic leader of Athens

Greek Economy & Society • More than 400 colonies • Spread Greek language &

Greek Economy & Society • More than 400 colonies • Spread Greek language & cultural traditions • Trade very important • Patriarchal society • Spartan women had higher status than women of the other poleis • Slavery – property of owners

Cultural Life of Classical Greece • Philosophy based on human reason • Socrates -

Cultural Life of Classical Greece • Philosophy based on human reason • Socrates - Know thyself! - question everything - accused of corrupting Athenian youths • Plato - The Republic philosopher-king

 • Aristotle - rules of logic to construct powerful arguments - Scientific method.

• Aristotle - rules of logic to construct powerful arguments - Scientific method. • Legacy of Greek Philosophy • Authority for European philosophers until 18 th century • Intellectual inspiration for Christian and Islamic theologians

 • DRAMA (comedy and tragedy): - Aeschylus - Sophocles - Euripides

• DRAMA (comedy and tragedy): - Aeschylus - Sophocles - Euripides

 • THE SCIENCES: - Pythagoras - Democritus all matter made up of small

• THE SCIENCES: - Pythagoras - Democritus all matter made up of small atoms. - Hippocrates “Father of Medicine”

Persian Wars • Greek Colonies on Ionian Coast revolted against Persian rule • Delian

Persian Wars • Greek Colonies on Ionian Coast revolted against Persian rule • Delian League formed to counter the Persian threat • Persia defeated at Battle of Salamis • Athens feels that it is now the center of Greek Culture……. . Leads to issues with other polis, especially Sparta….

Peloponnesian Wars • Tensions rise between Athens and Sparta • Army vs. Navy •

Peloponnesian Wars • Tensions rise between Athens and Sparta • Army vs. Navy • Unconditional surrender of Athens in 404 BCE (plague also helped) • End of the Golden Age of Greece

 • Greece brought under control of Macedonia • Alexander (the Great) succeeds Philip

• Greece brought under control of Macedonia • Alexander (the Great) succeeds Philip at age 20 • Begins conquests • 331 BCE controls Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia • Invades Persia & burns Persepolis • Crosses Indus River by 327 BCE • Dies at age of 33 in 323 BCE

Empire of Alexander the Great

Empire of Alexander the Great

Alexander’s Legacy • Unified Greek language & culture – Mediterranean east to India, Afghanistan,

Alexander’s Legacy • Unified Greek language & culture – Mediterranean east to India, Afghanistan, borders of Russia & south to Egypt • Greek administrators, businessmen, soldiers • Persia – blend with Hellenic culture • India – Buddha

The Breakup of Alexander’s Empire

The Breakup of Alexander’s Empire

 • Legendary founding 753 B. C. - Latins, Greek, Carthaginians, dominated by Etruscans

• Legendary founding 753 B. C. - Latins, Greek, Carthaginians, dominated by Etruscans • By 510 BCE, Roman aristocracy rebelled and created independent republic • Controlled all Italy 268 B. C.

The Republic 509 BCE– 27 BCE 2 Consuls (elected for a single year, rulers

The Republic 509 BCE– 27 BCE 2 Consuls (elected for a single year, rulers Senate (aka patricians – representative) Tribunes (represented plebians–veto power!!!!)

Rome Expands

Rome Expands

Policies of Expansion • Primary role of government – maintain order, provide food supply,

Policies of Expansion • Primary role of government – maintain order, provide food supply, maintain public works • Religious toleration as long as all citizens participated in the cults of the state • Expansion ends by 180 CE

Octavian Augustus

Octavian Augustus

Dysfunctional Emperors • Some good, some bad, some really baaaadddd…………. . • Caligula –

Dysfunctional Emperors • Some good, some bad, some really baaaadddd…………. . • Caligula – troubled…. • Nero – evil……. • Domitian – strange…. • Elagalbus – even stranger. .

Pax Romana 27 BCE – 180 CE CE

Pax Romana 27 BCE – 180 CE CE

Results of Roman Expansion • Treatment often brutal • Patricians monopolized land – cheap

Results of Roman Expansion • Treatment often brutal • Patricians monopolized land – cheap slave labor puts small farmers out of business • “Bread & Circuses” • Economy dependant on slave labor – military grew to control • Little technological development – advances limited to urban engineering

Roman Society • Patriarchal society • Woman have more privileges than in other classical

Roman Society • Patriarchal society • Woman have more privileges than in other classical societies (in particular, Patrician women could have public role)

Roman Achievements • Encyclopedias • Satire • City planning – water, lead pipes (caused

Roman Achievements • Encyclopedias • Satire • City planning – water, lead pipes (caused a few problems), sewage, fire protection • Bridges and aqueducts • Concrete!!!!!! • Water mills (late in the Empire • Roads – 60 K • Roman Law – basis for our legal system

Rise of Christianity • Tolerance, but……required loyalty to Roman gods and emperors • 63

Rise of Christianity • Tolerance, but……required loyalty to Roman gods and emperors • 63 -135 CE – Jewish revolts in Judea set stage for rise of Christianity • 10% of population Christian by 4 th century CE • Spreads rapidly among poor & disadvantaged • Sporadic persecution for refusal to participate in state rituals • Eventually the State allotted Christianity a legitimate, subordinate place in the Empire………. foundation for Western Civ.

The Empire in Crisis • Threat of Barbarians • Quality of Emperors (Barracks Emperors)

The Empire in Crisis • Threat of Barbarians • Quality of Emperors (Barracks Emperors) • Diocletian splits the Empire – 294 CE • The end is near………. . the Huns…….

Constantine 312 -337 CE • Moves capital from Rome……to Constantinople in 330 • Converts

Constantine 312 -337 CE • Moves capital from Rome……to Constantinople in 330 • Converts to Christianity

Barbarian Invasions were the immediate cause of the Fall of the Roman Empire but……………many

Barbarian Invasions were the immediate cause of the Fall of the Roman Empire but……………many things contributed as well……………….

 • Economic • Military • High Taxes • Germanic • High Inflation Invasions

• Economic • Military • High Taxes • Germanic • High Inflation Invasions • Loss of war loot • High cost of • Decline of manufacturing defense • Decline of agriculture • Dependence on mercenary • Social troops • Growing division • Loss of between rich & poor soldier’s loyalty • Loss of values to Rome • Loss of patriotism • Military interference in • Political the government • Division of Empire • Growing power of Eastern Empire • Corruption & unstable leadership

Legacy of Greece & Rome • Republic Government • Roman Law • Latin Language

Legacy of Greece & Rome • Republic Government • Roman Law • Latin Language • Roman Catholic Church • City Planning • Romanesque Architectural Style • Rational Thought • Engineering – aqueducts, sewage systems, dams, cement, arch • Drama – tragedy & comedy