- Slides: 11
� Juvenile: a person under the age of 18 � Some states have it as 16, but regardless there are special laws that deal with juveniles who commit crimes. � Juveniles become delinquent when they are found guilty of breaking the law. � In 2002, young people under the age of 18 made up 18% of all criminal arrests. � The highest number of arrests were for arson and larceny.
� So, why do young people commit crimes? There is no one answer, but some of the main causes that have been found are: � 1. � 2. � 3. Poor home life Parents are absent or rarely home. Some are addicted to drugs, abuse their children, etc. Parents sometimes expose their children to these things and the children do not know anything else. Poor neighborhood conditions Poorer areas of cities frequently have higher rates of crime. Areas do not offer the same educational or employment opportunities. Some see crime as their only way out. Gang membership Children join gangs for a sense of belonging. The gang becomes a substitute family. Gangs normally involve more serious crimes such as murder and trafficking drugs or weapons. In 2000 the National Youth Gang Survey estimated there were more than 772, 000 active gang member in the US.
� 4. When young people have nothing to do, they get into trouble. Juveniles who drop out of school often lack the education and skills to get a decent job, so they turn to crime. � 5. Alcohol and Drugs and alcohol lead a person to do things that he or she would not otherwise do. While under the influence, people can commit crimes for money to pay for their addictions. � 6. Dropping out of School and Unemployment Peer Pressure Some are pressured by friends to commit crimes
� It wasn’t until the 1967 that juvenile cases were handled differently than adult cases. �In re Gault: Supreme Court case that established the rules for juveniles. It said that juveniles have the same right of due process.
� During the 1870’s, people began to see need for a change in the juvenile justice system. � They believed that juveniles needed special understanding rather than punishment. � Their reason was that young people are less able to understand their actions than adults. � Many communities set up juveniles court systems in order to remove them from bad environments � The purpose of juvenile court is not to punish, but rather to rehabilitate.
� Juveniles have the rights just like adults: �Right to be informed of charges �Right to an attorney �Right to confront witnesses � However, there are differences: �They do not have juries. �Instead of a trial they have a hearing. �Only parents, lawyers, judge, probation officer and arresting officer are allowed in the hearing. This hearing is to determine guilt or innocence.
�Juveniles also have their records sealed. �Their identity is kept secret �Normally, if they successfully complete their punishment and stay out of trouble, their charges will be erased when they turn 18. �When they are arrested, their parents are called and they are informed in writing of the charges.
� During the hearing, a judge listens to evidence presented by both sides and at the end he/she must decide guilt or innocence. � If the juvenile is found guilty, the judge can decide on one of the following measures: � 1. Foster care: if the judge believes adult supervision where the child is inadequate, the juvenile can be placed in a foster home. � 2. Juvenile Corrections: in serious cases the judge may send the youth to a juvenile corrections facility, juvenile detention or formal prisoners for minors. They can also go to a training school where they can stay for a year. Drug or mental health issues can result in the juvenile going to a residential treatment facility.
�Probation: period of time during which offenders are given an opportunity to show that they can reform. They must obey strict rules like being home at a certain time each night and stay out of trouble. They also have to report to a probation officer. �Counseling: Juveniles are assigned a caseworker who makes sure that the young person gets therapy and other social services they may need.
� Suggestions � 1. to avoid getting in trouble: Do not use drugs � 2. Stay in school � 3. Have courage to say no when a friend asks you to do something illegal � 4. Try to live a full life with activities and hobbies.