Julius Caesar Reforms 44 B C Dictator for

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Julius Caesar Reforms • 44 B. C. -Dictator for life – Absolute ruler •

Julius Caesar Reforms • 44 B. C. -Dictator for life – Absolute ruler • Granted citizenship to many people in the provinces • Created jobs for the poor (Buildings) • Started colonies- so people could have land • Increased soldiers pay

Cont. • His popularity, success, & growing power troubled nobles & Senators • March

Cont. • His popularity, success, & growing power troubled nobles & Senators • March 15 44 B. C. (Ides of March) assasinated • Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius-leaders • “Et tu, Brute? ” • Civil war broke out

2 nd Triumvirate • Octavian (Caesar’s nephew/son) 18 yrs. , Mark Antony, & Lepidus

2 nd Triumvirate • Octavian (Caesar’s nephew/son) 18 yrs. , Mark Antony, & Lepidus take over • They hunt down all invoved • It ends in jealousy & violence • Octavian forces Lepidus to retire • Mark & Cleopatra fall in love • Oct accuses him of trying to rule from Egypt (Romeo & Juliet)

Octavian Becomes Augustus • Accepted the title- Agustus- exalted one • Kept the title

Octavian Becomes Augustus • Accepted the title- Agustus- exalted one • Kept the title imperator-supreme military commander-this is were we get Emperor • Rules 27 B. C. - 14 A. D. • This is the Height of Rome- This peace last 207 years, it is known as the PAX ROMANA • Empire included 3 mill square miles, 80 million people, & 1 million in Rome

Powerful Empire • • • 90% of the people farm Coinage- Denarius Trade Sea-

Powerful Empire • • • 90% of the people farm Coinage- Denarius Trade Sea- Med. Land-Complex Road- Silk Roads from China

Huge Empire • Pg. 149 in your book • Sound government- civil service, worked

Huge Empire • Pg. 149 in your book • Sound government- civil service, worked even when Bad Emperors such as Caligula & Nero were in charge • The Pax Romana ended in 180 A. D. with the death of Marcus Aurelius

Life in Rome • • • Men- values of discipline, strength and loyalty Paterfamilias-

Life in Rome • • • Men- values of discipline, strength and loyalty Paterfamilias- Head of family Dis-own children Banish or sell into slavery Women- Ran the household, authority & respect, More freedom than women in the Middle Ages • Could not own property or testify in court

Cont. • • Children –Boys Citizens, vote Girls – No Name – Martinia I

Cont. • • Children –Boys Citizens, vote Girls – No Name – Martinia I & Martinia II Few children went to school Rich did Poor never, worked, Illiterate Girls married at 12 -15, to much older men oooohhhh

Bread & Circuses • • • Rich/Poor greatly divided Rich-Good Poor just surviving To

Bread & Circuses • • • Rich/Poor greatly divided Rich-Good Poor just surviving To distract and control the masses the government free games & Food Chariot races Gladiators Christians thrown to lion Could this be like the U. S. Welfare- M TV, VH-1, BET, Sports, Betting on Sports