Jryeader A F T Modals NMKIPDVM B L

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Jryeader. A F T Modals NMKIPDVM B L

Jryeader. A F T Modals NMKIPDVM B L

Los modales son un grupo de verbos funcionan de manera diferente al resto. v

Los modales son un grupo de verbos funcionan de manera diferente al resto. v Son invariables, por lo que tienen una misma forma para todas las personas. v No necesitan “do” para formar la negativa ni la interrogativa. v. Siempre van seguidos de un verbo en la forma base. v No tienen infinitivo, participio, futuro, formas –ing, ni tiempos compuestos. Los modales que vamos a estudiar son: -Be able to, - can´t , - could , - don´t have to, - may, - might , - mustn´t , - need to , - needn´t , - ought to , - should , - would.

q Be able to y have to no comparten todas las características de los

q Be able to y have to no comparten todas las características de los modales, pero sí algunos de sus usos ( habilidad, obligación…. ) q Can , además de expresar habilidad o capacidad, se utiliza para dar y pedir permiso, hacer peticiones e indicar posibilidad. Todos estos usos en negativa se expresan con can´t, el cual significa, además deducción o certeza de que algo es imposible. Can sólo puede usarse en presente, así que en el resto de tiempos verbales usamos be able to. q Could se emplea para indicar habilidad en pasado, hacer peticiones y sugerencias mas formales que con can, y expresa una posibilidad mas remota que con can. q May y might expresan posibilidad ( mas remota con might ) de que ocurra algo. May también se usa para hacer peticiones mas formales que con can.

q Must y have to expresan obligación o necesidad, pero con must la obligación

q Must y have to expresan obligación o necesidad, pero con must la obligación es mas fuerte ( como cuando la impone la ley o alguien de autoridad). Además expresan una conclusión lógica (“deber de”, “tener que”) Must sólo puede usarse en presente, así que en el resto de tiempos verbales usamos have to. q Need to no es un modal. Así que necesita “do” en la negativa e interrogativa y puede emplearse en cualquier tiempo porque se conjuga. q Needn´t si es un modal y solo se usa en negativa para indicar que no hay obligación o necesidad de hacer algo ( igual que have to) q Mustn´t indica prohibición, en cambio don´t have to significa “no tener por qué”, es decir, ausencia de prohibición y de necesidad ( igual que needn´t) q Should y ought to se usan para dar consejo y hacer recomendaciones. Should es el mas usado. Ought to no se usa en negativa e interrogativa. q Would se utiliza para pedir u ofrecer algo de manera educada

Vamos a ver todo esto más claro si los clasificamos por sus usos (

Vamos a ver todo esto más claro si los clasificamos por sus usos ( obligación, consejo…. ) OBLIGATION (tengo la obligación de , debo, tengo que ) v Must v Have to (no modal) No OBLIGATION They must wear a uniform I have to finish this exercise (no hace falta que…) v Needn´t You needn´t come if you don´t want to. v Don´t have to (no modal) You don´t have to come if you don´t want to. She doesn´t have to come if she doesn´t want to. prohibi. TION v Mustn´t (no puedes ) You mustn´t smoke at school

necessity v need to ( no modal) Advice ( tienes que / es necesario

necessity v need to ( no modal) Advice ( tienes que / es necesario ) You need to work harder if you want to pass English (Dar consejos , hacer recomendaciones) v Should You should go to see a doctor v Shouldn´t You shouldn´t worry about your marks v Ought to You ought to study harder

Ten en cuenta que: Have to & must tienen un significado similar (obligación /

Ten en cuenta que: Have to & must tienen un significado similar (obligación / debo, tengo que ) Pero… Don´t have to & mustn´t tienen un significado muy diferente. ( Don´t have to : no obligación / no hace falta que Mustn´t : prohibition / no puedes ) gtyklopcgkñqwer

ability ( se , puedo , soy capaz de ) v can (presente) v

ability ( se , puedo , soy capaz de ) v can (presente) v could (pasado) v be able to (todos los tiempos) ( no modal ) I can play the piano I could climb mountains I will be able to drive a car I was able to drive a car I have been able to drive a car posibility v may (puede que) v might (pudiera ser que, quizás) They may begin acting like criminals He might come (posibilidad + remota) v could (puede que) They could be on the train now

Deduction / certainty v must ( I´m sure…. estoy segura) That must be your

Deduction / certainty v must ( I´m sure…. estoy segura) That must be your mother (Esa debe ser tu madre) v can´t (It´s imposible…estoy segura que no) That can´t be true (Eso no puede ser verdad)

Modales perfectos q could have + participio (se pudo haber hecho algo, pero no

Modales perfectos q could have + participio (se pudo haber hecho algo, pero no se hizo) It was a stupid thing to do. You could have hurt yourself. q couldn´t have + participio ( certeza de que algo no pudo haber ocurrido) Eric couldn´t have broken the vase. He wasn´t at home. q may / might have + participio ( suposición de un hecho pasado) Elsa may / might have taken the wrong bus q must have + participio (conclusión lógica de un hecho pasado) I hear you´ve been to Scotland. That must have been interesting

q should / ought to have + participio (quejarnos de lo que ocurrió o

q should / ought to have + participio (quejarnos de lo que ocurrió o lamentarnos de que no se haya cumplido lo que esperábamos) You should have warned me earlier You ought to have studied harder q shouldn´t have + participio (nuestra opinión crítica sobre algo pasado, algo que no debería haber ocurrido) You shouldn´t have eaten so much q would have + participio ( se quiso haber hecho algo en el pasado, pero no se pudo) I would have gone to the party, but I was too busy

Choose the correct answer. 1. The doctor says I might / must get more

Choose the correct answer. 1. The doctor says I might / must get more exercise. 2. You look great in brown. You should / can wear it more often. 3. His arm is broken, so he isn’t able to / may not write. 4. Tomorrow is a holiday, so we mustn’t / don’t have to get up early. 5. When you are on a diet, you ought to / could drink a lot of water. 6. He stopped the car so he should / could rest for a while.

Choose the correct continuation. 1. You may borrow the book. a. I’ve finished reading

Choose the correct continuation. 1. You may borrow the book. a. I’ve finished reading it. b. It’s a good idea. 2. Greg shouldn’t marry Katie. a. She’s already married. b. He doesn’t love her. 3. She mustn’t drive home. a. She drank beer at the party b. Her brother took the car. 4. I don’t have to cook dinner. a. I’ve never learned to cook. b. We’re going out for a meal.

Complete the sentences with the modals below. may • must • can’t • could

Complete the sentences with the modals below. may • must • can’t • could • should must 1. You ……………… come to us for dinner. I won’t accept no for an answer. May 2. ……………… I have a piece of cake, please? can’t 3. He ……………… reach it. He’s not tall enough. should 4. You ……………… always brush your teeth before you go to sleep. could 5. I ……………… make people laugh when I was young.

Replace the words in bold with the words below. needn’t • mustn’t • ought

Replace the words in bold with the words below. needn’t • mustn’t • ought to • have to • might ought to 1. Tess should help her mother more. ……………… might 2. I’m not sure, but she may be French. ……………… • couldn’t mustn’t 3. In some countries, girls are forbidden to uncover their faces in public. …. . needn’t 4. You don’t have to explain. ……………… have to 5. You must be careful not to offend them. ……………… couldn’t 6. I’m sorry we weren’t able to come. ………………

Choose the correct answer. 1. The restaurant isn’t as busy as I expected. We

Choose the correct answer. 1. The restaurant isn’t as busy as I expected. We mustn’t have / might not have / needn’t have reserved a table. 2. Jay looks happy. He could have / must have / ought to have passed his driving test. 3. I’m so tired this morning. I couldn’t have / needn’t have / shouldn’t have gone to bed so late. 4. You could have / must have / may have called to tell us you were coming.

Choose the correct answer. 1. I can’t / don’t have to / needn’t see

Choose the correct answer. 1. I can’t / don’t have to / needn’t see without my glasses. 2. There’s school tomorrow, so we could / have to / are able to be home early tonight. 3. It’s cold. I think you can / are able to / ought to take a sweater. 4. We’ll look after you. You needn’t / can’t / may not be afraid. 5. The doctors say Uncle Jeff doesn’t have to / might not / mustn’t work so hard.

q Choose the correct continuation 1. He must have known we were coming. a.

q Choose the correct continuation 1. He must have known we were coming. a. He prepared a delicious meal. b. He looks so surprised. 2. You shouldn’t have eaten so quickly. a. You don’t want to be sick. b. You will be sick. 3. They could have bought it. a. They had enough money. b. They didn’t have enough money. 4. She might have called. a. I am at home. The phone didn’t ring. b. I wasn’t at home. I don’t know. 5. My parents couldn’t have seen that film. a. They would have told me. b. They aren’t going out tonight.