Journey to Work from 1990 Census and ACS

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Journey to Work from 1990 Census and ACS National test (C 2 SS) Elaine

Journey to Work from 1990 Census and ACS National test (C 2 SS) Elaine Murakami, USDOT, FHWA Nanda Srinivasan, Cambridge Systematics Inc.

Understanding the Surveys 1990 Decennial Census • Sample: 1 in 6 of all households.

Understanding the Surveys 1990 Decennial Census • Sample: 1 in 6 of all households. (15. 32 million households) • Coverage: Whole country – 3140 counties • Point in time Survey – Reference period: April 1, 1990 • Group quarters’ population included 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) • Sample: 700, 000 households • Coverage: 1203 counties • Rolling Survey • Conducted over 12 months • Group quarters’ population NOT included

Understanding the Surveys • Mode to work: “usual last week” • Mode to work:

Understanding the Surveys • Mode to work: “usual last week” • Mode to work: allows only for ONE response • C 2 SS includes only workers in hhlds (does not include workers in Group Quarters) • 1990 CTPP tabulated travel time for all workers— households and group quarter information cannot be separated. 2000 ACS tabulated travel time only for workers in households.

Nationwide Comparison Variable 1990 2000 Change (Number) (%) Number of households 91, 947, 410

Nationwide Comparison Variable 1990 2000 Change (Number) (%) Number of households 91, 947, 410 104, 724, 456 12, 777, 046 Total population in households 242, 050, 161 273, 643, 269 31, 593, 108 Total workers in households 113, 437, 877 127, 437, 475 13, 999, 598 Average travel 22 min 23 sec 24 min 20 sec 1 min 57 sec Time (min) Percent of households with 11. 5% 9. 3% no vehicles 13. 90 13. 05 12. 34 8. 73 -2. 2%

Mode to work • In 2000, 76. 3 percent of workers reported driving alone

Mode to work • In 2000, 76. 3 percent of workers reported driving alone to work. • In 2000, 11. 2 percent of workers reported carpooling, followed by transit (5 percent), work at home (3. 2 percent), and walk (2. 7%). • Carpooling declined from 13. 4 percent (1990) to 11. 2 percent (2000) of all workers. • Transit retained 5 percent share between 1990 and 2000. • In numbers, workers using transit for their JTW increased 7. 7 percent over the 10 -year period (1990 to 2000).

Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Source: 1990

Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Source: 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Source 2000

Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Source 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS)

Drive Alone to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Universe: Workers: All Workers

Drive Alone to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Carpool to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Universe: Workers: All Workers 16

Carpool to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Transit to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: Modes included in transit

Transit to Work Change in Percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: Modes included in transit are Bus or trolley bus; Streetcar or trolley car; Subway or elevated; and Railroad. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Transit to Work Change in Number of Workers, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: Modes included

Transit to Work Change in Number of Workers, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: Modes included in transit are Bus or trolley bus; Streetcar or trolley car; Subway or elevated; and Railroad. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older living in households Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Travel Time Comparison for the US • In 2000, the average travel time to

Travel Time Comparison for the US • In 2000, the average travel time to work was 24 minutes 20 seconds as compared to 22 minutes 23 seconds in 1990. An increase of almost 2 minutes. Note: Some of this difference may be due to coding changes (of trips > 99 minutes) between 1990 and 2000. The increase may be closer to 1 minute and 24 seconds. • 14. 2% of workers now commute more than 45 minutes to work (1990, 12%) • 29% of workers now commute less than 15 minutes to work (1990, 31. 4%) Note: “Worked at home” was excluded from “commute less than 15 minutes”

Travel Time: Comparison for States • New York continued to hold the top spot

Travel Time: Comparison for States • New York continued to hold the top spot for the longest average travel time at 31 minutes 11 seconds followed by Maryland (29: 10), New Jersey (28: 41), the District of Columbia (28: 32) and Illinois (27: 02). • West Virginia had the greatest increase in travel time at 4 minutes and 26 seconds followed by Georgia (4: 14) and New Jersey (3: 24). • The states with the fastest average travel times continued to be South and North Dakota at 15 minutes 34 seconds and 15 minutes 24 seconds respectively.

Travel Time Distribution U. S. Total, 1990 -2000 Note: C 2 SS did not

Travel Time Distribution U. S. Total, 1990 -2000 Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarter Population. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older who did not work at home Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Travel Time Distribution Texas, 1990 -2000 Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group

Travel Time Distribution Texas, 1990 -2000 Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarter Population. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older who did not work at home Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Percent of Workers Departure Time U. S. Total, 1990 Departure Time Note: C 2

Percent of Workers Departure Time U. S. Total, 1990 Departure Time Note: C 2 SS data release did not include a table with departure time Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older who did not work at home Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Average Travel Time to work Total in minutes, 2000 Legend Note: C 2 SS

Average Travel Time to work Total in minutes, 2000 Legend Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarter Population. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older who did not work at home Data Source: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS)

Commutes more than 45 minutes Change in percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: C 2

Commutes more than 45 minutes Change in percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarter Population. Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Commutes less than 15 minutes Change in percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: C 2

Commutes less than 15 minutes Change in percent, 1990 -2000 Legend Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarter Population. “Worked at home” was excluded from “commute less than 15 minutes” Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Population Change (%) and Change in Average Travel Time (min) to Work 1990 -2000

Population Change (%) and Change in Average Travel Time (min) to Work 1990 -2000 Legend Less than 2 min. Change in Avg. 2 – 3 min. Travel Time 20 % th an 0% ore - 2 M 5% tha ess L % Population Change n 5 % More than 3 min. Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarters Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older Population: Persons living in households Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Worker Change (%) and Change in Average Travel time (min) to Work 1990 -2000

Worker Change (%) and Change in Average Travel time (min) to Work 1990 -2000 Legend Less than 2 min. Change in Avg. 2 – 3 min. Travel Time 0% ore th an 20 % - 2 M 5% tha L ess % Change in number of workers n 5 % More than 3 min. Note: C 2 SS did not survey Group Quarters Universe: Workers: All Workers 16 years and older Data Sources: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS) 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP)

Vehicle Availability • Percent of households with no vehicles decreased from 11. 5% in

Vehicle Availability • Percent of households with no vehicles decreased from 11. 5% in 1990 to 9. 3% in 2000. • By state, the percent of households with no vehicles ranges from 3. 5% in Idaho to 28. 1% in New York. • Percent of households with 3 or more vehicles increased from 17. 3% in 1990 to 18. 3% in 2000. – Wyoming has the highest percent of households with 3 or more vehicles (30. 2%).

Average Number of Vehicles in Households Total, 2000 Legend Universe: Households: All Households Data

Average Number of Vehicles in Households Total, 2000 Legend Universe: Households: All Households Data Source: 2000 ACS: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C 2 SS)