Job job may be defined as a A “collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as a whole, are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees”. •
I n other words, when the total work to be done is divided and grouped into packages, we call it a “Job”.
• TASK • The smallest identifiable and essential piece of a job that serves as a unit of work, and as a means of differentiating between the various components of a project. • DUTY • A duty is an obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or created by one's own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a consequent penalty for failure.
Job Analysis It is a systematic analysis of each job for the purpose of collecting information as to what the job holder does, under what circumstances it is performed and what qualifications are required for doing the job. •
Job Analysis • Edwin Flippo: “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job”.
JOB ANALYSIS • The main purpose of conducting job analysis are: • To prepare job description and job specification that further help in job evaluation. • To hire the right quality of workforce into the organization at right place, with the right skills at the right time.
Uses of Job Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Human resource planning Recruitment Selection of personnel Training and development Organization audit
Uses of Job Analysis Job evaluation 7. Job design 8. Performance appraisal 9. Career planning 10. Safety and health 6.
Components of Job Analysis Job Description Job Specification
Definition of Job Description Edwin Flippo: “Job Description is an organized factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It should tell what is to be done, how it is done and why. ”
JOB DESCRIPTION • A job description is an internal document that clearly states the essential job requirements, job duties, job responsibilities, and skills required to perform a specific role. • A more detailed job description will cover how success is measured in the role so it can be used during performance evaluations.
Definition of Job Specification Edwin Flippo: “Job Specification is a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly”.
JOB SPECIFICATION • Job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, technical and communication skills required to perform a job, and responsibilities involved in a job. • It also includes general health, mental health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity, etc.
SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION
Job Analysis • Method of Job Analysis • Questionnaires • Expert incumbents or supervisors often respond to questionnaires or surveys as apart of job analysis. These questionnaires include task statements in the form of worker behaviours. Subject matter experts are asked to rate each statement from their experience on a number of different dimensions like importance to overall job success, frequency performance and whether the task must be performed on the first day of work or can be learned gradually on the job. • The questionnaire responses can be statistically analysed to provide a more objective record of the components of the job.
Common areas that questionnaires focus on: • • • Knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications Duties performed daily Duties performed less frequently Equipment and materials used for duties Time spent on different job duties Physical and emotional input Level of job satisfaction Salary and compensation Work conditions Additional comments
• Interviews • Interview is a method to collect a variety of information from an incumbent by asking the incumbent to describe the tasks and duties performed. • It is essential to supplement observation by talking with incumbents. These interviews are most effective when structured with a specific set of questions. • The advantage of this method is allowing the incumbent to describe tasks and duties that are not observable. However, the incumbent may exaggerate or omit tasks and duties.
• Observation Direct observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities eg assembly-line worker and accounting clerk • Onthe other hand, observation is usually not appropriate when the job entails a lot of mental activity eg: lawyer, design engineer. • Nor is it useful if the employee only occasionally engages in important activities, such as a nurse who handles emergencies. • Disadvantage: the workers changing what he or she normally does because you are watching can also be a problem. • Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together. One approach is to observe the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. The cycle is the time it takes to complete the job; it could be a minute for an assembly line worker or an hour, a day, or longer for complex jobs. Here you take notes of all the job activities. Then, after accumulating as much information as possible, you interview the worker. •
OBSERVATION - ADVANTAGES • The trained job analyst can obtain first-hand knowledge and information about the job being analysed. Other job analysis methods (such as th einterview or questionnaire) only allow the job analyst to indirectly obtain this information. Thus, with other methods of job analysis, sources of error(omissions or exaggerations) are introduced either by the incumbent being interviewed or by items on the questionnaire. With direct observation of the incumbent, these sources of error are eliminated. • Direct observation allows the job analyst to see (and in some cases experience) the work environment, tools and equipment used, interrelationships with other workers, and complexity of the job.
WORKFLOW ANALYSIS Workflow Analysis • Workflow analysis is a study of the way documents, information and the people who are related to a process move through an organization. • Workflow analysis refers to the process by which you can take a close look at your company and determine where its strengths and weaknesses lie. It is helpful in finding out inconsistencies in the processes of the organization and enables the business owners to make necessary changes. • Of course it is not a compulsory function but neglecting workflow analysis can lead to chronic and stubborn problems which become difficult to resolve.
• Workflow Process Mapping • Workflow process mapping is the initial step of creating a workflow, where users take a careful look at the business process before building the actual workflow. • In this step, users analyze the targeted business process, study its current state and define the people involved and what actions are needed to automate the manual process. In a way, process mapping to a workflow is like a floor plan to a house – users need it in order to build a strong and reliable workflow.
Sample workflow at a hospital • Can be depicted with the help of a flowchart. • Flowchart: A flowchart is the actual chart that illustrates your workflow. Flowcharts are used to depict a variety of concepts, including workflows.
• The Benefits of Process Mapping • When you map out a process on paper you develop a broad vision of the business process from start to finish. • You also gain a detailed understanding of who and what is involved in the process and get clearly communicated set of values, goals and expectations. A visual, systematic look at a process allows you to pinpoint troublesome areas that need further human involvement. Often, you don’t know what the end result of a business process can actually be, so a process map provides you with the possible options.