Job Analysis Job Description Job Specification and Job

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Job Analysis: Job Description, Job Specification and Job Evaluation Jayendra Rimal 1

Job Analysis: Job Description, Job Specification and Job Evaluation Jayendra Rimal 1

Goal: Match Person & Job Need information about the Person & about the Job

Goal: Match Person & Job Need information about the Person & about the Job 2

Definitions Job Analysis: the process of collecting & analyzing information about jobs to write:

Definitions Job Analysis: the process of collecting & analyzing information about jobs to write: Job Description: a document that identifies the tasks & duties performed by a job Job Specification: a document that identifies the qualifications required by a job Job Evaluation: Determine relative worth of all jobs to ensure fair and equitable pay treatment for all employees Most organizations combine the Job Description & the Job Specification into a single document for each job Usually simply called a “Job Description” 3

Definitions, contd… Task: a unit of work activity performed by a worker within a

Definitions, contd… Task: a unit of work activity performed by a worker within a limited time period Duty: several related tasks that are performed by a worker Position: the set of all tasks & duties performed by a worker Job: a group of identical positions 4

Format of a Job Description Example: Restaurant Manager Common Elements Job Title Job Summary

Format of a Job Description Example: Restaurant Manager Common Elements Job Title Job Summary Tasks & Duties “Task Statements” Qualifications Other information 5

Format of a Task Statement First word or phrase (required): Performs what action? (Present-tense

Format of a Task Statement First word or phrase (required): Performs what action? (Present-tense verb) Example: “Supervise …” Next word or phrase (required): To whom or what is the action performed? (Object of the verb) Example: “… operation of bar …” Next word or phrase (optional): Additional information Example: “… to maximize profitability, minimize legal liability, and conform to alcoholic beverage regulations. ” 6

Format of a Task Statement Example: Restaurant Manager Each Task Statement is in the

Format of a Task Statement Example: Restaurant Manager Each Task Statement is in the proper format Optional: Put the Task Statements in order of: Task performance Task importance Amount of time spent on each task No order, but group related tasks 7

Job Analysis Process Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4. 1, p. 141

Job Analysis Process Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4. 1, p. 141 8

New Views of Job Analysis Future-Oriented Strategic Job Analysis Identify the tasks, knowledge, skills,

New Views of Job Analysis Future-Oriented Strategic Job Analysis Identify the tasks, knowledge, skills, & abilities that will be needed to perform a job in the future Instead of describing how a job is today, describe how it will be in the future Typically uses experts to help make predictions of the future Competency Modeling Identify the observable performance dimensions that differentiate effective from ineffective employees Define the job’s critical success factors, which should be tied to the organization’s objectives and strategy 9

Job Evaluation: Job Requirements and Pay It is the part of the process in

Job Evaluation: Job Requirements and Pay It is the part of the process in which the organization decides the relative internal worth relationships of jobs. The worth to the organization of the individually acquired and job-related knowledge is identified through job rates of pay. Job-related differences must be recognized in an objective manner to ensure equitable relationship between rates of pay provided and employee contribution. Developing different rates of pay can be systematic and orderly process, or it can be reactive to the particular influence of the moment 10

Importance of Job Evaluation Establish an orderly, rational and systematic structure of jobs based

Importance of Job Evaluation Establish an orderly, rational and systematic structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization. To justify an existing pay rate structure or to develop one that provides fro internal equity. To assist in setting pay rates that are comparable to those of similar jobs in other organizations. To provide a rational basis for negotiating pay rates when bargaining collectively with an union. To identify ladder of progression for future movement to all employees interested in improving their compensation opportunities. To comply with legislation and regulations To develop a base for a merit or pay-for performance program. 11

Predetermined Grading Approach Pay grade is a defined area that establishes a specific rate

Predetermined Grading Approach Pay grade is a defined area that establishes a specific rate of pay or a range of pay for all jobs that meet certain requirements. The process: Developing a class standard/Pay grade narrative: Identify and describe benchmark or key jobs that would normally be paid at the highest or lowest levels of pay and sufficient jobs between these two points. Positions are analyzed in terms of responsibilities, difficulty and qualifications. Broadbanding: This groups a number of progressively higherpaying grades into one pay grade band. Reduces the need to define and measure job differences and promotes paying the same rate of pay for jobs that require different knowledge and skills. But the placement of a specific position into a pay grade can be difficult because of an accurate and complete description of that job. Problem with under or over emphasize job content leading to an inappropriate pay grade. 12

Market Pricing Approach No matter what evaluation method was used, organizations have to recognize

Market Pricing Approach No matter what evaluation method was used, organizations have to recognize the realities of the market place. Pure market Pricing Method: This uses the labor market to set the worth of jobs. Other organizations are asked to match comparable jobs that have similar job activities and incumbent requirements for fixing pay rates. Market Pricing Guide Line Method: This method permits the influences of internal pay equity to interact with existing market rates when determining rates of pay. This contains (i) a guide line scale (ii) job scope date (iii) market pricing and (iv) a horizontal guide line display 13

Any questions?

Any questions?