JOB ANALYSIS & DESIGN
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties §Human Resource Planning §Recruitment §Selection §Training and Development Job Descriptions Job Analysis §Performance Appraisal §Compensation and Benefits Job Specifications §Safety and Health §Employee and Labor Relations Knowledge Skills Abilities §Legal Considerations §Job Analysis for Teams
Definitions § Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals § Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization
Definitions (Continued) § Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization § Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job § Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job
Types Of Job Analysis Information § § § Considerable information is needed, such as: Worker-oriented activities Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles Work performance Job content Personal requirements for the job
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis § Work Activities – work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility § Worker-oriented activities – human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure § Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used § Job-related tangibles and intangibles – knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed § Work performance – error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task § Job context – work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts § Personal requirements for the job – personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience
Sources of job analysis informaiton § Manager § Incumbent § Job analyst § DOT (Dictionary of occupational Titles) – US Department of Labor has been pioneer in JA. This is considered bible for all identifiable jobs
Job Analysis Methods § Observation § Critical incident technique § Interviews § Questionnaires, survey, checklists PAQ Functional Analysis § Employee recording (work diaries, log books, journals etc) § Combination of methods
PAQ § Well known instrument, to make the process more simple and thorough § It involves rating 194 job desctiptors that explain the job based elements included in the questionnaire. The items are divided into SIX major categories. Information input, Mental processes, work output, relationship with others, job context & other job characterstics.
1. Does the job need any decision making / communication/ social responsibility to be undertaken? 2. Does the person doing the job need to perform any high skilled activities? 3. Does the job demand high physical activity? 4. Does the job require operating vehicles/machineries? 5. Does the job involve information processing? These statements are ranked as per the extent of use on scale of 1 -5 Online version – www. paq. com
Process of JA § Determining the purpose of JA § Gathering background information about the job § Choosing representative jobs for analysis § Collecting relevant job information § Reviewing gathered information § Preparing JD statement & JS Statement
Timeliness of Job Analysis Rapid pace of technological change makes need for accurate job analysis even more important now and in the future.
Job Design § Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization § It is the specification of the contents, methods, and relationships of the job in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirement of the job holder.
Benefits § Enables to develop a competent, dynamic and responsive workforce § Ensures that the customers get high quality goods & services without any delay and interruptions § Helps the firm in achieving cost reduction by eliminating the causes of accidents and injuries through enhanced health and safety measures
§ Enhances employee satisfaction, motivation, involvement and commitment, through improved cooperation between management and employees § It offers wide opportunities to the employees to convey their views and opinions to the management through participative management programs
§ Its implementation often requires the employees to undergo periodic training to upgrade their skills and thus helps them in their career growth § It contributes effectively to the organiational effectiveness and as a result, to the competitiveness of the org. in the market.
Factors influencing Job Design § § § § § Ergonomics Characteristics of Task Structure Task Assortment Level of Autonomy & responsibility Practices Recognition & support Technological Developments Strength of Union Corporate Culture Working Conditions
Techniques of Job Design § Job Simplification –Jobs are broken into very small parts as in assembly line where a fragmented task is repeatedly done over and over again by the same individual § Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker § Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker
Job Design § Job Rotation – A person is required to perform one job at one time but he is rotated at different jobs after certain period of time § Reengineering – Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed § E-Commuting § Flexitime Work