Job Analysis And Design Supriya Ashoka Job analysis

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Job Analysis And Design Supriya Ashoka

Job Analysis And Design Supriya Ashoka

Job analysis: l Job Analysis: It is the process of determining and recording all

Job analysis: l Job Analysis: It is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information About a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge and the skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job and the abilities to perform the job successfully l It differentiates one job from another l Provides the necessary inputs for number of HR activities like recruitment, selection, job design, estimating job worth, training and appraisal. 2

l Job description and specification for the basis for recruitment l Provides input for

l Job description and specification for the basis for recruitment l Provides input for training l Helps in evaluating worth of each job thereby serve as a tool to design the compensation system l Plays a key role in designing a performance appraisal system. 3

JOB ANALYSIS JOB Analysis A systematic investigation into the tasks and skills and other

JOB ANALYSIS JOB Analysis A systematic investigation into the tasks and skills and other information relevant to performing a job Employment Select the best and most suitable recruitment Job evaluation Estimate the worth of the job selection Job evaluation Job enrichment Wage surveys Job design Improve performance Alternative work schedules Establishing formal job requirements Training Determine the training needs Performance appraisal Appraisal Measure and reward performance Equitable compensation system On –the job development 4

Process of job analysis l Information gathering l On org structure, role of job

Process of job analysis l Information gathering l On org structure, role of job in relation to other jobs l Detailed description of the activities and responsibilities involved in the job l Job specific competency determination l Developing a job description l Developing a job specification 5

Job analysis methods Observation method l The individuals performing the job are observed and

Job analysis methods Observation method l The individuals performing the job are observed and relevant points are noted l But for jobs that are not repetitive and are quite complicated it becomes very cumbersome and difficult to make a note of the observations Individual interview method l Used when job in question is complex and has varied tasks. it is very effective when the interview is structured and the analyst is clear about what information is to be obtained 6

Group interview method l Employees performing the same job are interviewed in groups. l

Group interview method l Employees performing the same job are interviewed in groups. l Group dynamics also play its role Questionnaire method l The analyst usually gives a long and structured questionnaire to be filled up by the job incumbents l Has both objective and open-ended questions l The supervisor normally vets the information furnished by he employee to ensure that it is accurate 7

Technical conference method l Gathers information about the job from expertsusually supervisor and not

Technical conference method l Gathers information about the job from expertsusually supervisor and not the incumbents Diary method l Job incumbents make immediate note of the activities they perform l Time and effort required to be put in notes by the job holder to keep notes of this kind is enormous Functional job analysis l The job analysts conducts background research interviews job incumbents and supervisors, makes site observations and then prepares detailed document. l Work functions and their levels of difficult 8

Critical incident technique (CIT) According to John Flanagan who proposed the critical incident technique

Critical incident technique (CIT) According to John Flanagan who proposed the critical incident technique in 1954, behaviors in specific situations contribute to the success or failure of individuals or organisations l Interviews and questionnaires can be used to collect and compile information on these critical incidents l CIT is more suitable for middle and top management level jobs as critical incident can take place at these levels l 9

Job Analysis Information A well planned and well executed job analysis exercise results in

Job Analysis Information A well planned and well executed job analysis exercise results in many effective tools for the HR function l Some of them are l Job identification-the title of the job and its code number l Significant characteristics of a job-information regarding the location of the job, its physical setting, the degree of supervision required for the job, union jurisdiction, the hazards and discomforts involved in the job l 10

l Information about specific operations and tasks to be performed by a typical worker

l Information about specific operations and tasks to be performed by a typical worker l What materials and equipment the worker uses l How a job is performed- information regarding the nature o operations like lifting, handling, cleaning, washing, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, setting up etc 11

l Required personal attributes- experience prior training, apprenticeship, physical strength, coordination or dexterity etc

l Required personal attributes- experience prior training, apprenticeship, physical strength, coordination or dexterity etc l Job relationship- information regarding opportunities for advancement, patterns of promotion degree of cooperation and coordination required with coworkers etc 12

Job analysis Information and facts Job description (job oriented) Contains information and facts about

Job analysis Information and facts Job description (job oriented) Contains information and facts about Job identification: Job title, location, job code, short name, department and unit Job summary: brief job contents, its authority, responsibility, hazards, etc Relation to other jobs (superiors, subordinates) Location in the hierarchy Machine tools and equipment used Materials used Responsibilities Conditions of work, location of work, posturestanding, sitting-walking, speed accuracy, health hazards, occupational diseases etc Hazards (accident hazards) Job specification (employeeoriented) Contains information and facts about Education Experience Training Judgment Initiative Physical effort Physical skills Communication skills Emotional characteristics Unusual sensory demands such as vision, smell, hearing, etc. 13

Job description l It describes in detail the various aspects of a job like

Job description l It describes in detail the various aspects of a job like the tasks involved, the responsibilities of the job and the deliverables. Also describes the setting and work environmental of he job. l Drafting and maintaining job description l Scope and nature of the work, including all important relationships 14

l Work and duties of the position l To show the kind of work,

l Work and duties of the position l To show the kind of work, degree of complexity, the degree of skill required, the extent to which the problems are standardized l Supervisory responsibility should be explained to the incumbents 15

Job specification l Written statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications, knowledge, skills, traits and

Job specification l Written statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications, knowledge, skills, traits and physical and mental characteristics that an incumbent must possess to perform the jobs successfully l These specifications are as described below l Physical specifications 16

l For example height weight, hearing capability etc l Mental specification l Analytical ability,

l For example height weight, hearing capability etc l Mental specification l Analytical ability, data interpretation ability, decision making ability l Emotional and social specification 17

l Include stability adaptability and flexibility, ability to work in team, lead a team

l Include stability adaptability and flexibility, ability to work in team, lead a team maintain interpersonal relationships l Behavioral specifications 18

l Include the ability to make judgments, ability to undertake research, creativity, teaching ability,

l Include the ability to make judgments, ability to undertake research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity (i. e. whether the individual is capable of accepting responsibility 19

Uses of job analysis l Employment l Man power planning, recruitment, selection, placement, orientation

Uses of job analysis l Employment l Man power planning, recruitment, selection, placement, orientation and induction l Organisation Audit l Helps in identifying loopholes in terms of processes organisational structure, workflow etc. hence serves the purpose of audit and identifies area for improvement and development 20

l Training and development l Job analysis comes handy in training need identification and

l Training and development l Job analysis comes handy in training need identification and design of training programme for employees 21

Performance Appraisal l It is based on goal setting and the job analysis forms

Performance Appraisal l It is based on goal setting and the job analysis forms the basis for goal setting Promotion and Transfer l The best fit for a position can be identified by evaluating the candidates for transfer/ promotion against the results of job analysis 22

Preventing dissatisfaction l Job analysis helps in identifying and rectifying problems or shortcomings in

Preventing dissatisfaction l Job analysis helps in identifying and rectifying problems or shortcomings in job design. This helps in removing some of the possible reasons for employee dissatisfaction Compensation management Health safety Induction 23

l Industrial relations l Job descriptions are used to solve the industrial disputes. Good

l Industrial relations l Job descriptions are used to solve the industrial disputes. Good job descriptions help in maintaining harmonious industrial relations 24

Career planning Succession planning l It involves identifying and grooming a successor for a

Career planning Succession planning l It involves identifying and grooming a successor for a vacancy that would arise in future. l Thus Job analysis helps in evaluating the available candidates and selecting the most suitable one. 25

Common terms used in job analysis l l l Micromotion: it is the simplest

Common terms used in job analysis l l l Micromotion: it is the simplest unit of work and involves very elementary movement Element: it is an aggregation of two or more elements and is normally a complete entity Task: a task is a logical and necessary element in the performance of specific work and needs effort Position: a group of tasks ands responsibilities assigned constituting the work of a single employee Job: a group of positions that are identical in terms of their responsibilities and tasks is termed as job. A number of employees can be in the same job but in different positions. Occupation: a group of jobs that are similar and are found throughout an industry or the entire country is termed occupation. 26

l Responsibilities: they are the obligations to perform certain tasks and assume certain duties

l Responsibilities: they are the obligations to perform certain tasks and assume certain duties l Job analysis: the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker for successful performance of the job and which differentiate one job from all others 27

l Job description: An organized factual statement of the nature and requirements of a

l Job description: An organized factual statement of the nature and requirements of a specific job is termed job description l Job specification: it is a statement of the competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and abilities and educational and experience qualifications necessary to perform a job successfully l Job classification: the grouping of jobs on some specific basis, such as work or pay, is termed job classification. 28

Job description- Example l l l l l Job title: Manager-technical BPO operations Location:

Job description- Example l l l l l Job title: Manager-technical BPO operations Location: New Delhi/NCR Job description: Ownership of the technical consulting operation, providing technical services o client with regard to connectivity, specific application support etc Lead the team (of assistant managers, team leaders, quality coaches, trainers and technical support associates) and provide support to actualize on innovative business solutions in a cost effective manner Man power planning, recruiting, scheduling, training and appraising ensuring optimum resource utilization Process planning and improvisation MIS generation and analysis for customer and organisation analysis to track performance trends Co-ordinate with other departments in order to assure the smooth running of operation 29

Job specification l 5 -7 years experience with at least 2 -3 years in

Job specification l 5 -7 years experience with at least 2 -3 years in BPO l customer service/ care BPO experience essential l experience of handling technical processes in a call center l knowledge of quote/order to delivery cycle l excellent analytical, management, and communication skills l must be open to work in night shifts 30

Issues in job analysis l The Job analysis exercises are viewed with suspicion by

Issues in job analysis l The Job analysis exercises are viewed with suspicion by the employees l In some organisations it is used by the management for downsizing or for re-evaluating jobs for wage administration l Need to update the information gathered l It is not advisable to have a very detailed and elaborate job description, as employees tend to draw boundaries and fix their responsibilities. Thus extra work is being evaded by the employees. 31

Job Design l It is the process of structuring work and designating the specific

Job Design l It is the process of structuring work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels. It determines the responsibility of an employee the authority he enjoys over his work, his scope of decision making and eventually his level of satisfaction and his productivity. 32

l Also has an effect on the relationships in a group and the productivity

l Also has an effect on the relationships in a group and the productivity of the group. l The line managers play an important role in the job design as they understand the work processes better 33

l Job content l It includes the various tasks or activities that have to

l Job content l It includes the various tasks or activities that have to be performed by the job holder, the responsibilities attached to the job an the interrelationships with other jobs in the organisational set up. l Job depth l It is the autonomy and the authority that the job holder enjoys in planning and organizing the work attached to the job 34

A Good Job Design It facilitates involvement and development of employees’ mental and physical

A Good Job Design It facilitates involvement and development of employees’ mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to l Flexibility in work/rest schedules or pace of work l Variety and challenge in tasks to enrich the job l Allows employee inputs; employees should have flexibility in performing tasks according to personal needs, work habits, and work place situation l 35

l l l l Gives employees a sense of pride and satisfaction Trains and

l l l l Gives employees a sense of pride and satisfaction Trains and equips the employees Provides good work/rest schedules which are not very demanding Allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding jobs Provides timely feedback to the employees to facilitate improvement Minimizes energy expenditure by incorporating easy tasks and tools Balances static and dynamic work 36

Hygiene needs Reflect Job context and lower level needs Motivator needs Reflect job content

Hygiene needs Reflect Job context and lower level needs Motivator needs Reflect job content and higher level needs Negative work environment creates demands for Positive job opportunities allow workers to achieve Hygiene factors More money Bette r supervision Good working conditions Job security Consistent management Policies and rules Which influence Level of dissatisfaction Level of job performance Motivators Achievement Responsibility Growth Work itself recognition Which influence Level of job satisfaction Herzberg’s Theory: factors affecting Job satisfaction 37

Different approaches to job design Engineering approach l Key element is the task idea

Different approaches to job design Engineering approach l Key element is the task idea that led to job specialization l The task idea is the work of every workman that is fully planned and laid out by the management, at least one day in advance l The workers are given specific instructions on what is to be done, how is it to be done and the exact time o be taken to complete the work l According to principles of scientific management, the role of management in job design is as follows l The manager determines one best way of performing the job l The manager employs individuals according to their abilities, which have to match the needs of job design 38

The manager undertakes all planning organizing and controlling of a job l Engineering approach

The manager undertakes all planning organizing and controlling of a job l Engineering approach focused on specialization l Although specialization offered economic benefits and enhanced organisational performance, resistance to this approach grew. l Workers felt that overspecialization hindered the development of meaningful interpersonal relationships with the managers as well as coworkers l 39

Demerits of the overspecialization l Repetition l Mechanical pacing l No end product l

Demerits of the overspecialization l Repetition l Mechanical pacing l No end product l Little social interaction l No personal input l Human relations approach l Introduced a human touch to deal with the problem of overspecialized jobs l Under this approach over-specialized jobs needed to be redesigned to become more satisfying and rewarding to the employees. l It was felt that the workers have social needs which necessitate casual interactions with supervisors and co-workers. So scope for flexibility had to be introduced in job design l Based on Hertzberg’s two factor theory of work motivation 40

Job Characteristics Approach l This was propounded by Hackman and Oldham states that employees

Job Characteristics Approach l This was propounded by Hackman and Oldham states that employees work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do, and when the work gives them satisfaction l Thus motivation, satisfaction and productivity are three factors that should be integrated into job design 41

The core dimensions or characteristics of a job Skill variety: it is the degree

The core dimensions or characteristics of a job Skill variety: it is the degree to which a job necessitates the use of different skills for the various activities to be performed l Task identity it is the degree to which the job requires completion of a work from he beginning to the end. The output should be a complete and identifiable piece of work l Task significance it is the importance of the task and the degree to which the job makes an impact on the lives or work of other people l 42

l Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom and discretion to the

l Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom and discretion to the employee or worker in scheduling work and in determining the pace and process l Feedback: the degree to which objective direct and timely information regarding the progress and performance of work reaches the employee from the job itself, or from the superiors or from an information system 43

Motivating potential score of the job l MPSJ =((skill variety+ task identity + task

Motivating potential score of the job l MPSJ =((skill variety+ task identity + task significance/3)*autonomy*feedback 44

Core job characteristics Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from the job

Core job characteristics Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from the job Critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experiences responsibility for the outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Outcomes High internal work High quality work performance High growth satisfaction High general job satisfaction Low absenteeism and turnover High work effectiveness Mediators Knowledge and skill Growth need strength Content satisfaction Job characteristics model 45

Socio-Technical Approach l l l l Both the technical system and the social system

Socio-Technical Approach l l l l Both the technical system and the social system are emphasized. According to this view the job should be designed taking a holistic view for both physical and social environments The basic characteristics of the job according to this approach A little challenging and demanding Variety and novelty Social support and recognition Desirable future Decision making authority Correlation with social lives 46

Modern Management Techniques l Job rotation l It enhances employee motivation by periodically assigning

Modern Management Techniques l Job rotation l It enhances employee motivation by periodically assigning the employee to alternative jobs l The employee also will also gain a wider knowledge of the organisation and its work processes l Job enlargement l Involves increasing the length and hence the operating time of each cycle of work for the job holder. l Basically different and continuous small cycles would be integrated into one single cycle of operation l This reduces the no. of repetitions of the operating cycle and increase the scope of work for employees 47

Job enrichment It is done by redesigning the job so as to increase both

Job enrichment It is done by redesigning the job so as to increase both their scope and their depth. The incumbent has enough autonomy to plan, organise and control his job l For example job of a sales manager l In a consumer durables firm l He has to identify the customer base understand their needs, customize the product/service if required, market the product to them, maintain contact with them for the after sales service and resolve any complaint that the customer migh have l 48

Job enrichment techniques l Incorporating more responsibility in the job l Providing wider scope,

Job enrichment techniques l Incorporating more responsibility in the job l Providing wider scope, greater sequencing and increased pace of work l Assigning a natural unit of work either to an employee or to a group of employees l Minimizing controls and providing freedom of work when the employees are clearly accountable for attaining defined goals l Allowing the employees to set their own standards or targets 49

l Allowing the employees to monitor their own performance by providing control information l

l Allowing the employees to monitor their own performance by providing control information l Encouraging employees o participate in planning and innovating l Introducing new difficult and creative tasks l Assigning specific projects to individuals or groups to enhance their expertise 50

Steps l l l Selecting the jobs that can motivate the employee and eventually

Steps l l l Selecting the jobs that can motivate the employee and eventually result in improvement of the performance Providing scope for change and enrichment in job design Making a list of a changes that might enrich the jobs by brainstorming Concentrating on motivational factors such as achievement, responsibility, self control Changing the content of the job rather than changing the employees 51

l Providing adequate training, guidance, encouragement and help l Introducing the enriched jobs carefully

l Providing adequate training, guidance, encouragement and help l Introducing the enriched jobs carefully so that there is no resistance towards the implementation of job enrichment programs l Preparing specific programs for each project and ensuring access to information that helps management to monitor the performance of workers 52

Job Enrichment Guidelines Principle Method Form natural work units Apportion tasks on the basis

Job Enrichment Guidelines Principle Method Form natural work units Apportion tasks on the basis of levels of workers, training/experience, meaningfulness and importance to workers Combine tasks Encourage development of several skills by combining a number of specialized functions into one whole task Establish client relationships Create opportunities for workers to interact with clients (product or service users); workers will benefit by Direct feedback (both positive and negative) on their work output Development of interpersonal skills and increase in self confidence Increased responsibility for managing relationships with clients Increase employee’s Give workers more responsibility and control by allowing them to autonomy (vertical Decide on work methods loading) Advise on work methods Schedule overtime Assign work priorities Manage their own crises instead of relying on a supervisor Control budgetary aspects on their own Open feedback channels Workers get feedback while performing their tasks, instead of after the act. Job- related feedback can come from Direct client relationships Worker’s responsibility for quality control inspections 53 Frequent and standard reports on individual performance

Modern management techniques l Flextime l Telecommuting l Job sharing l Condensed work week

Modern management techniques l Flextime l Telecommuting l Job sharing l Condensed work week l Working from home 54