Jews blamed for Germany’s Problems; laws stripped Jews of citizenship and rights; Germans urged to attack Jews; Jews sent to concentration camps. Ch. 24 Sec. 2 Bellringer They hadwbeen stripped of citizenship; no money What was the history ofhad. NAZI anti to leave; most countries unwilling to take poor -Semitism? immigrants. Why was it difficult forand Jews Plan to w murder all Jews in Europe the to Soviet Union. leave Germany? The US was slow to respond. Immigration rules limited the w What was the NAZI Governments number of Jews who were able to move to the US. In January 1944, the War. Final Refugee Board was formed. Solution? w How did the United States respond to the Holocaust?
The Holocaust Ch. 24 Sec. 2
The Main Idea During the Holocaust, Germany’s Nazi government systematically murdered some 6 million Jews and 5 million others in Europe.
Arriving at Auschwitz The Nazi Government’s Most of the people arrested and transported to death camps by the Nazis knew Final the terrible fate that awaited them. Viktor Solution Frankl, a physician from Austria, described his terror upon w World War II “The brought manyobviously of Europe’s arriving at Auschwitz. train shunted, nearing a main 9 station. Suddenly cry brokethe fromcontrol the ranks of million Jewsa under ofthethe anxious passengers. ‘There is a sign, Auschwitz!’ Everyone’s Nazi SS. heart missed a beat at that moment. Auschwitz—the very name stood for all that was horrible; were gas chambers, w Concentration camps built in crematoriums, massacres…My imagination led me to see Germany and in other countries that gallows with people dangling on them. I was horrified. ” the Germans occupied. Holocaust – The camps were prisons for Jews and The term Holocaust comes from the Hebrew word olah, which others considered enemies of Hitler’s is translated as holokauston in the Greek version of the Hebrew regime. Bible. The original meaning of the word was “a sacrifice – Conditions consumed by fire. ” in the camps were horrific.
w The Nazis also established ghettos to control and punish Jews. – Ghettos are neighborhoods in a city to which a group of people are confined. – Life in the Jewish ghettos was desperate. – The worst ghetto was in Warsaw, Poland. w In 1941 Hitler called for the total destruction of all of Europe’s Jews. – At first mobile killing units— Einsatzgruppen—massacred Jews. – Then, Nazi officials adopted a plan known as the Final Solution.
Camps w Prisons for Jews, prisoners-of-war, and enemies of the Nazi regime w Inmates received little food and were forced to labor. w The combination of overwork and starvation was intended to kill. w Punishment for minor offenses was swift, sure, and deadly. w http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LNh. Fx. V 79_ Kc&feature=related
Ghettos w Walls or fences kept the Jews inside and those trying to leave were shot. w Food was scarce; starvation was rampant. w Diseases spread rapidly. w The worst ghetto was in Warsaw, Poland. w Some Jews in the Warsaw ghetto—the Jewish Fighting Organization—fought back.
The Final Solution w Genocide – the killing of an entire people w Involved building 6 new extermination camps for Jews w Inmates were exposed to poison gas in specially built chambers. w 3 million Jews died in extermination camps. w 3 million Jews and 5 million others were killed by the Nazi using other means.
The American response to the Holocaust w Despite knowing about Hitler’s policies toward the Jews and events such as Kristallnacht, American immigration limited the number of Jews who could move to the United States. w In 1942, Americans officials began to hear about what was happening to the Jews in Europe and specifically about Hitler’s Final Solution. – The Americans were doubtful at first and thought the reports might just be war rumors. w Finally in 1944, Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board. – Through this board, the United States was able to help 200, 000 Jews.
Liberating the Nazi Camps w In 1944, Soviet troops began to discover some of the Nazi death camps. By 1945 they reached the huge extermination camp at Auschwitz. w Their reports gave proof of Hitler’s terrible plan. w Also in 1945, American soldiers came upon concentration camps. w Many camp inmates died after being rescued, but some were still strong enough to survive.
The Nuremberg trials w Many Nazis faced w Twenty two Nazis trial for their roles in were tried for war the Holocaust. crimes, including Hermann w The court was Göering. located at w Since Nuremberg, Germany. several Nazis have been captured and w The court was called tried in different the International courts, including Military Tribunal. Israel.