Its the semantics stupid Remarks on the motivations

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It's the semantics, stupid! Remarks on the motivations for semantic foundations of Europeana Prof.

It's the semantics, stupid! Remarks on the motivations for semantic foundations of Europeana Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann Humboldt-University Berlin / Europeana stefan. [email protected] hu-berlin. de http: //www. ibi. hu-berlin. de/institut/mitarb. A-Z/professoren/gradmann It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 1

It's the semantics, stupid! Presentator's Context: Digital Humanities, Digital Libraries & Open Access Background

It's the semantics, stupid! Presentator's Context: Digital Humanities, Digital Libraries & Open Access Background in literary scholarship (work on Joyce, Kafka, Arno Schmidt, Semiology, Greek Mythology), Digital Libraries and Digital Semantics International advisor to “Our Cultural Commonwealth” (American Council of Learned Societies Report on Cyberinfrastructure for the Humanities and Social Sciences) Additional background: traditional library automation (Pica/OCLC) Building the European Digital Library / Europeana Currently teaching Library and Information Science at Humboldt University / Berlin (Knowledge Management) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 2

Overview It's the semantics, stupid! Background: i 2010 and the Google challenge Putting semantics

Overview It's the semantics, stupid! Background: i 2010 and the Google challenge Putting semantics on the agenda: EC working group on DL interoperability recommendations. . . as taken up in Europeana functional specifications and architecture (D 2. 5) Where do we go from here? Proposals, plans & prospects Rose, Europeana. Connect, Europeana 1. 0 Semantics: why, for whom? Digital Humanities Scholars Strategic value of Europeana semantic foundations It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 3

How it all started. . . It's the semantics, stupid! 2005: Excitement about Google

How it all started. . . It's the semantics, stupid! 2005: Excitement about Google Books (Jeanneney: “Quand Google defie l'Europe” => Chirac, Schröder) => EC i 2010 agenda with Digital Libraries as one of 3 'flagship initiatives': the setting up of the European Digital Library as a “common multilingual access point to Europe’s distributed digital cultural heritage including all types of cultural heritage institutions”, announced by Commissioner Reding in September 2005 2008: at least 2 million digital objects; multilingual; searchable and usable; work towards including archives. 2010: at least 6 million digital objects; including also museums and private initiatives. DL Interoperability WG active from January to June 2007 with as main mission to Contribute to the short term DL agenda => identify areas for short term action and recommend elements of an action plan (list of prioritised feasible options) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 4

DL Interoperability Working Group Composition Emmanuelle Bermes (Bibliothèque nationale de France / F), Mathieu

DL Interoperability Working Group Composition Emmanuelle Bermes (Bibliothèque nationale de France / F), Mathieu Le Brun (Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe / LU) It's the semantics, stupid! Sally Chambers (The European Library Office / TEL), Robina Clayphan (The British Library / GB), Birte Christensen-Dalsgaard (State and University Library Aarhus / DK), David Dawson (The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council / GB), Stefan Gradmann (Hamburg University Computing Center / D), Stefanos Kollias (Technical University of Athens / GR), Maria Luisa Sanchez (Ministerio de Cultura / ES), Guus Schreiber (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam / NL), Olivier de Solan (Direction des Archives de France / F) Theo van Veen (Koninklijke Bibliotheek / NL) EC: Pat Manson Chair), Marius Snyders (European Commission, DG INFSO, Cultural Heritage and Technology Enhanced Learning) Federico Milani (European Commission, DG INFSO, e. Content. Plus) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 5

The Interoperability Abstraction Layer Cake Abstract semantic It's the semantics, stupid! allowing to access

The Interoperability Abstraction Layer Cake Abstract semantic It's the semantics, stupid! allowing to access similar classes of objects and services across multiple sites, with multilinguality of content as one specific aspect Interoperability Group Focus => Europeana functional / pragmatic based on a common set of functional primitives or on a common set of service definitions syntactic allowing the interchange of metadata and protocol elements technical/basic common tools, interfaces and infrastructure providing uniformity for navigation and access Concrete It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 6

It's the semantics, stupid! Towards a Semantic Agenda for Europeana DL interoperability group identified

It's the semantics, stupid! Towards a Semantic Agenda for Europeana DL interoperability group identified semantically enabled functionality as the critical, distinguishing feature of a European Digital Library The final report states “Semantic web technologies can be used to create semantic interoperability in three areas: interoperability of the federated content resources on concept level semantic interoperability of EUDL on user interface level semantic interoperability of EUDL for automated processing both for EUDL being plugged in emergent semantically aware WWW services and for integrating such services in the functional scope of EUDL. ” It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 7

It's the semantics, stupid! Short Term Agenda Issues for 2008 (2 out of 10)

It's the semantics, stupid! Short Term Agenda Issues for 2008 (2 out of 10) (8) Basic Semantic Interoperability Make existing metadata and the controlled terminology used therein machine understandable to create a data layer ready for semantic query methods. The method of choice for conversion is SKOS, but use of OWL or RDF may be appropriate in some application scenarios. (9) Awareness Building regarding Semantic Interoperability Demonstrate the added value to be gained from semantic interoperability and the short term viability of converting existing controlled terminology in experimentation environments relevant to the Eu. DL. These environments also to be used to market semantic interoperability functions of Eu. DL as our unique selling point. More at http: //bnd. bn. pt/seminario-conhecer-preservar/doc/Stefan%20 Gradmann. pdf. It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 8

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . as taken up in Europeana draft functional

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . as taken up in Europeana draft functional specifications A semantic interface for Europeana “A central principle for building Europeana is that a network of semantic resources will be used as the primary level of user interaction. ” Interaction with data providers “Aggregators and other content providers need to provide identifiers, metadata files, vocabularies in SKOS form, links to semantic nodes, licensing and rights information and access to the original digital objects. ” Terminology mapping “The work to turn this [collection of Europeana terminologies] in a 'European Ontology' and more specifically the mapping of these concept schemes cannot be done in the context of Europeana alone but must be made be part of the wider EC research agenda. However, Europeana will have to contain instruments that can be used to produce such mappings and to promote best practices. ” Make Europeana a network of inter-operating object surrogates enabling semantics based object discovery and use. It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 9

It's the semantics, stupid! Document Objects, Metadata and Semantic Networks It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! Document Objects, Metadata and Semantic Networks It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 10

It's the semantics, stupid! Object Model for Europeana Surrogate Aggregations It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! Object Model for Europeana Surrogate Aggregations It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 11

. . . and further developped in projects planned and proposed for EC funding

. . . and further developped in projects planned and proposed for EC funding ROSE (ICT Strep, Research) semantic interoperability, It's the semantics, stupid! ontology matching, ontology mapping, mapping evolution, co-reference discovery and generalised surrogate building machine Europeana V 1. 0 (e. Content+ TN, implementation) Providing Europeana infrastructure components Building parts of the core functionality of Europeana Building the Europeana organisation Europeana. Connect (e. Content+ BPN, implementation) Integrate work from different (mostly EU funded) development activities to provide additional core and advanced functionality with WP 1 being about “Creating the Europeana Semantic Layer” Echoes of today's workshop as well as continuation activities will be made part of the latter two (we still have a few days. . . ) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 12

Semantics: for whom? It's the semantics, stupid! Citizens Main focus of Europeana work to

Semantics: for whom? It's the semantics, stupid! Citizens Main focus of Europeana work to date, cf. some details at http: //www. europeana. eu/public_documents/D 3. 1_User_use_cases_fo r_maquette_Final. pdf (Use Cases) and http: //www. europeana. eu/public_documents/IRNeuropeana_surveys_summary_report. Mar 08. pdf (focus groups) Machines Make European cultural heritage part of future global semantic processing networks Digital Humanities Scholars Humanities scholars always have been concerned with reaggregation and interpretation of cultural heritage corpora (literature, music, artwork – all kinds of cultural artefacts) Europeana enabling automated semantic operations over large cultural heritage corpora creates entirely new opportunities for the digital humanities! It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 13

Scholarship in the digital era

Scholarship in the digital era

It's the semantics, stupid! Processing of source data in the Humanities: aggregation. . .

It's the semantics, stupid! Processing of source data in the Humanities: aggregation. . . It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 15

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . modeling. . . It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . modeling. . . It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 16

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . and Digital Heuristics? It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . and Digital Heuristics? It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 17

Digital Document Value Add-On (c) J. -C. Meister Complexity It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic

Digital Document Value Add-On (c) J. -C. Meister Complexity It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Web Linking Hyperlinks Variant Comparison Semantic Mark. Up Collocation Semantic Profiling (Z-Score) Concordance DTD Search&Retrieval Pattern Recognition Formal Mark. Up Parsing, Character Substitution Hermeneutical Richness It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 18

Open Scholarly Communities on the Web partly (c) Paolo d'Iorio / Michele Barbera It's

Open Scholarly Communities on the Web partly (c) Paolo d'Iorio / Michele Barbera It's the semantics, stupid! Objective Create social networks of specialists in a humanities research area Enable 'web scholarship' s Similar to academies in the 17 th century Barriers Scholars lack digital literacy Public institutions tax digital access to public domain Publishers protect old business models Lack of content, lack of open sources It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 19

Online Survey of Humanities Scholars It's the semantics, stupid! Christine Madsen / Oxford Internet

Online Survey of Humanities Scholars It's the semantics, stupid! Christine Madsen / Oxford Internet Institute It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 20

Some Work Done / Ongoing Hyper. Nietzsche It's the semantics, stupid! COST A 32:

Some Work Done / Ongoing Hyper. Nietzsche It's the semantics, stupid! COST A 32: “Open Scholarly Communities on the Web” (13 countries) April 2006 - December 2010 to establish and foster the growth of Scholarly Communities on the Web to create a digital infrastructure for the humanities to define an appropriate legal, economic and social framework e. Content+ project: “Discovery. Digital semantic corpora for virtual research in philosophy” (6 partners) Key partners in all scenarios are CNRS ITEM (Paolo d'Iorio) and Net. Seven (Michele Barbera) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 21

Components Created to Work on this Corpus Hyper It's the semantics, stupid! “. .

Components Created to Work on this Corpus Hyper It's the semantics, stupid! “. . . a web application created to help scholars in accessing primary sources (like manuscripts) and to share the result of their researches. ” pre-Discovery (PHP, Postgre. SQL) Talia “. . . a semantic web digital library system, designed to help philosophy researchers and scholars in their work with digital content and provide them with all the resources needed for their work. ” Discovery (Ruby) => http: //www. talia. discovery-project. eu/ Philospace “. . . is an innovative client application that allows users to browse philosophical content, published in the Talia platform, leveraging the power of semantic knowledge associated to such contents. ” Discovery (Dbin 2. 0, => http: //dbin. org) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 22

It's the semantics, stupid! Discovery Corpus: Digitised Manuscripts Philosophy Literature History Friedrich Nietzsche Gustav

It's the semantics, stupid! Discovery Corpus: Digitised Manuscripts Philosophy Literature History Friedrich Nietzsche Gustav Flaubert CNRS-ITEM, Paris Fernand Braudel CNRS-ITEM, Paris Ancient / Modern Philosophy CNR-ILIESI, Roma MSH-Paris Marcel Proust CNRS-ITEM, Paris Arthur Schopenhauer Paul Valéry Universities Pisa / Mainz CNRS-ITEM, Paris Contemporary philosophy Virginia Woolf Leicester / London Rai. Net, Roma Ludwig Wittgenstein WAB, Bergen It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 23

It's the semantics, stupid! “To work towards making all good things part of the

It's the semantics, stupid! “To work towards making all good things part of the common good and all things free to those who are free” It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 24

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Digitisiation, Presentation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Digitisiation, Presentation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 25

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Digitisiation, Presentation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Digitisiation, Presentation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 26

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Transcription, Presentation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Transcription, Presentation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 27

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Transcription, Presentation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Transcription, Presentation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 28

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Sources and Editions (synoptical) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Sources and Editions (synoptical) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 29

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Mory Synoptical Features It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper: Mory Synoptical Features It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 30

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia: Refacturing Hyper using Semantic Web (1) It's the semantics,

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia: Refacturing Hyper using Semantic Web (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 31

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia: Refacturing Hyper using Semantic Web (2) It's the semantics,

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia: Refacturing Hyper using Semantic Web (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 32

It's the semantics, stupid! Manuscript Stemmata: a Specific Kind of Inferencing (1) It's the

It's the semantics, stupid! Manuscript Stemmata: a Specific Kind of Inferencing (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 33

It's the semantics, stupid! Manuscript Stemmata: a Specific Kind of Inferencing (2) It's the

It's the semantics, stupid! Manuscript Stemmata: a Specific Kind of Inferencing (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 34

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia/Philo. Space: Annotations and Semantic Enrichment It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! Talia/Philo. Space: Annotations and Semantic Enrichment It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 35

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 36

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 37

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (3) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (3) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 38

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (4) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (4) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 39

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (5) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Semantic Enrichment Example (5) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 40

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper/Talia: Bidirectional Links It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper/Talia: Bidirectional Links It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 41

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper/Talia: Dynamic Contextualisation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02.

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper/Talia: Dynamic Contextualisation (1) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 42

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper / Talia: Dynamic Contextualisation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!,

It's the semantics, stupid! Hyper / Talia: Dynamic Contextualisation (2) It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 43

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . a nice basis for reasoning / digital

It's the semantics, stupid! . . . a nice basis for reasoning / digital heuristics! It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 44

Conclusion (1): it's the semantics, stupid! It's the semantics, stupid! Platforms such as Talia

Conclusion (1): it's the semantics, stupid! It's the semantics, stupid! Platforms such as Talia and communities built around those need to be pluggable into Europeana Such platforms and communities must be capable to display Europeana resources as part of their proper functional context For the first two interoperability requirements to be viable at all a strong semantic data layer as part of Europeana and an appropriate API for specialised reasoning as a basis for digital humanities heuristics is vitally required We thus do not propose to fight Google – but rather will provide a critical added value Google doesn't offer (but may of course be working on, but in secret. . . ) In such a perspective, a strong profile characteristic for Europeana would – paradoxically – result from what may be perceived as a specific European weakness: the scattered, heterogeneous and multilingual nature of our cultural resources requiring semantic foundations for conceptual interoperability! It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 45

Conclusions (2): it's the humanities, stupid! It's the semantics, stupid! A semantics aware Europeana

Conclusions (2): it's the humanities, stupid! It's the semantics, stupid! A semantics aware Europeana delivers what has been asked for in the “Cyberinfrastructure for the Social Sciences and Humanities” report commissioned by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS): “Our Cultural Commonwealth” “The often institutionally enforced disconnect between technician and scholar is a microcosm of the much larger failure to consider the ends to which our powerful machine is put. [. . . ] Unfortunately we are still in some instances thinking that the non-technical scholar specifies the end in mind, whereupon the technician implements it. In that circumstance both lose. ” (Willard Mc. Carty, Humanist Discussion Group 22. 053) Europeana needs to build a strong semantic data layer at the foundation of its large digital corpora provide users with clearly defined APIs to support specialised functions for reasoning and digital heuristics work with the humanities computing community In that circumstance both win! It's the semantics, stupid!, Tenerife 02. 06. 2008 / 46