Historical Timeline Under British control Pre-1917 – Palestine under control of Ottoman empire 1917 -1947 – Palestine under British control. Balfour Declaration of 1917 – Britain pledges to create in Palestine a “national home for the Jewish people”. At time there were half million Arabs in Palestine and only 70, 000 Jews 1933 -1939 – rise of Hitler in Germany, continued Jewish emigration from Europe to Palestine. By 1939 half million Jews in Palestine. 1936 -1939 – Arab revolt against creation of Jewish state. 1947 – United Nations proposed creation of separate Jewish/Arab states from Palestine.
1947 UN Partition Plan 1947 – United Nations proposed creation of separate Jewish/Arab states from Palestine.
--Excerpt from: The Lemon Treeby Sandy Tolan, page 115 • “Growing up, Dalia would frequently ask her parents and teachers: “What are these houses we are • • • living in? ” “These are Arab houses, ” she was told. “What are these Arab houses that everyone talks about? ” she would reply. Dalia’s school was in an Arab house, and there she would learn Israel’s history. She learned about the creation of the state of Israel as a safe haven for the Jews. She studied the War of Independence as the story of the few against the many. The Arabs had invaded, Dalia would read, in order to destroy the new state and throw the Jews into the sea. Most nations confronted with such hostilities would have been paralyzed, but tiny Israel had withstood five Arab armies. Little David had defeated Goliath. As for the Arabs, Dalia’s textbooks would report that they ran away, deserting their lands and abandoning their homes, fleeing before the conquering Israeli army. The Arabs, one textbook of the day declared, “Preferred to leave” once the Jews had taken their towns. Dalia accepted the history she was taught. Still, she was confused. Why, she wondered, would anyone leave so willingly?
Excerpt from: The Lemon Treeby Sandy Tolan • “We were exiled by force of arms. We were exiled on foot. We were exiled to take the earth as our bed. And the sky as a cover. And to be fed from the crumbs of those among the governments and international organizations who imparted their charity. We were exiled but we left our souls, our hopes and our childhood in Palestine. We left our joys and sorrows. We left them in every corner, and on every grain of sand in Palestine. We left them with each lemon fruit, with each olive. We left them in the roses and flowers. We left them in the flowering tree that stands with pride at the entrance of our house in al-Ramla. We left them in the remains of our fathers and ancestors. We left them as witnesses and history. We left them, hoping to return. ”
• Israel • Palestinians • Ancestors lived in area • Ancestors have been nearly 2000 years ago living in area nearly 2000 years • �Jerusalem home to most important Jewish • Jerusalem home to 3 rd site—Western Wall most important Muslim site-Dome of the Rock/Al-Aqsa Mosque
Land Partition (separate) the area into 2 countries • Israel (Jewish State) and Palestine (Arab State) • 55% of land goes to the Jews • 45% of land goes to the Arabs • Total Population: 1. 8 million 1. 2 million Arabs living in area 600, 00 Jews living in area • Jerusalem: “international city” controlled by UN • Accepted by Jews • Rejected by Arabs • No Arab on committee
Israeli Independence May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaims Israeli independence – one day before planned British military withdrawal David Ben-Gurion, PM from 1948 -1963 and UN plan to take affect. Explosion of violence between Jewish/Palestinian nationalists.
• • May 14, 1948: Israel is officially formed �May 15, 1948: Israel attacked by six Arab nations �Approx. 750, 000 Palestinians fled or were forced to leave �Over approx. 800, 000 Jews in Arab countries also fled or were forced to leave for Israel • �Israel After War: Jordan controls West Bank and Egypt controls Gaza Strip • �Israel takes much of Palestine and western part of Jerusalem— eastern part including religious sites taken by Jordan
The 1948 Arab-Israeli War Israeli victory leads to territorial gains. After 1949 armistice, Jordan assumes control over West Bank and Egypt over the Gaza Strip. No Palestinian state. Nearly 700, 000 Palestinians fled or were forced out of Israel into the West Bank, Gaza, or beyond. In what Palestinians call “The Disaster” only about 150, 000 Palestinians remained inside Israeli territory.
Two Perspectives on the war • • Israel Creates state of Israel War of Independence Holocaust and other periods of violence against Jews throughout the past centuries might not have happened if there was a Jewish Palestinians • They had no input • Nabka: “Catastrophe” • Land set aside for Palestinians now under control of Arab countries or Israel
Reflection • Write about BOTH of the following questions. • If you were Israeli, how might you feel about the creation of the state of Israel and the war that began the next day? • If you were Palestinian, how might you feel about the creation of the state of Israel and the war that began the next day?
By mid 1950 s, nearly 1 million Palestinians living as refugees either in West Bank, Gaza or abroad. Israel enacts “Law of Return” granting citizenship to anyone of Jewish ethnicity who emigrates to Israel – over 1 million Jewish emigrants came in first 5 years. The plight of Palestinian refugees emboldens anti-Israeli sentiments in neighboring Arab states. Also concerned about Israeli expansion.
1956 Suez Canal Crisis � • Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal in 1956 and closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel, which blocked Israeli access to the Red Sea. • Israel attacks Egypt with later reinforcements from France and the United Kingdom • Ceasefire agreement and withdrawal of Israeli troops • United Nations Peacekeepers sent to maintain peace in the area
The Six Day War of June 1967 – Israel launches preemptive strike against Egypt, Jordan, Syria in Six Day War. Take Sinai peninsula and Gaza from Egypt, West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria.
Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war • • • Egypt requests withdrawal of UN in May 1967 and denies Israel access to the Red Sea by closing Straits of Tiran Jordan and Egypt sign mutual defense agreement Continued terrorist attacks from Syria’s Golan Heights region Israeli surprise attack against Egypt on June 5, 1967 Also attacks Syria, Jordan Within six days Israel defeats Egypt, Syria, Jordan Takes control of West Bank , Gaza Strip Control of all of Jerusalem Control of Sinai (from Egypt) Control of Golan Heights (from Syria)
Perspectives on and Aftermath of 1967 War • Land gained is a buffer zone to deter future attacks • Begin to build settlements in West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights • Unified Jerusalem under Israeli control • West Bank and Gaza Strip become known as “Occupied Territories” • Some will accept Israel at pre 1967 War borders. • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) later begins to use terrorism to attract attention to its cause of an independent state
The October 1973 or Yom Kippur War 1973 – Yom Kippur war. Egypt attacks Israel seeking to regain Sinai. 1979 – Egypt seeks to negotiate a return of the Sinai in exchange for peace with Israel.
Anwar Sadat Menachem Begin 1977 -1983
Camp David Accords • 1977: Egypt (led by Anwar Sadat) engages Israel in peace efforts • 1978: Camp David Accords • U. S. President Carter invites Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to Camp David • Egypt recognizes Israel as a country • Israel gives Sinai peninsula back to Egypt • First agreement between Israel and an Arab nation
Perspectives on Camp David Accords • Shows that the country • Egypt recognizes that is willing to trade land Israel is a country and it has conquered for exists. peace • Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists • Jordan signs peace agreement with Israel in 1994.
Camp David Accords 1979 – Camp David Accords Israel and Egypt make peace Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Islamic radicals who eventually will form leadership of Al Qaeda.
Omar Abdel Rahman “godfather” of radical Islamist movements, Ayman al Zawahiricurrent leader of al-Qaeda
1980 s – Israeli nationalists/orthodox jews increase settlement of West Bank. Kibbutzim (farm cooperatives). Goal of Zionism is to reclaim all land of ancient Israel. 1991 – Jews from throughout the Soviet Union migrate to Israel. Current Israeli Population – 7. 2 million. Includes 5. 5 million Jews (75%) + 270, 000 Israeli settlers in West Bank and 1. 2 million Palestinian Arabs are Israeli citizens inside Israel (about 20% of population).
Among Jews, 68% are Sabras (born in Israel speaking Hebrew). The rest are Olim (born outside Israel and most fall into the following categories) 1. Ashkenazim – born in Germany, France, Eastern Europe, Russia 2. Sephardim – from Portugal, Spain, North Africa 3. Bene Roma – from central Italy 4. Mizrahim – from Muslim countries other than Spain, Portugal, North Africa Current Palestinian refugee Population – 3. 8 million total (2. 4 million in West Bank, 1. 4 million in Gaza Strip) + 1. 2 million in Israel.
The Intifada � • Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation, living conditions, and to demand independence that begins in 1987. • Includes Palestinian demonstrations, strikes, boycotts, rock throwing and gasoline bombs. • Israeli military response • Over approx. 400 Israelis Killed • Over approx. 1500 Palestinians Killed
Yasser Arafat and the PLO Fatah - Palestinian National Liberation Movement 1964 – formation of Palestinian Liberation Organization. Fatah movement – militant wing of PLO led by Yasser Arafat.
Munich 1972 - Black September Group 1970 – PLO involved in attempt to overthrow Jordanian monarchy. Fails and Arafat flees to Lebanon. 1972 – Fatah’s Black September carries out attack on Israeli athletes at Olympic Games in Munich.
1 st Intifada or “uprising” 1987 -1993 1982 – Israel invades Lebanon, PLO relocates to Tunisia 1987 – First intifada (“shaking off” or uprising) breaks out in Palestinian territories.
Oslo Accords 1993 Yitzhak Rabin, Clinton, Yasser Arafat 1993 – Oslo Accords – Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat agree to plan for Palestinian governance of some parts of West Bank and Gaza.
The Palestinian Authority 1993 -Creation of Palestinian Authority. Arafat allowed to return to occupied territory. 1996 – Arafat and Fatah party become head of Palestinian Authority in first ever Palestinian elections. 2000 – attempts to resolve Palestinian sovereignty break down. Neither Ehud Barak nor Yasser Arafat can agree to a plan. Palestinian Territories
Temple Mount = Haram al-Sharif 2000 – Ariel Sharon, leader of the nationalist Likud Party provokes Palestinians by visiting sight of Temple Mount and al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Declared site would always remain under Israeli rule. Al-Aqsa Mosque
The Second Intifada, 2000 -Present
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade Hamas - Islamic Resistance Movement “Zeal”
2001 – Ariel Sharon assumes power in Israel – Palestinian Authority looses control to Israeli security forces in West Bank and Gaza. 2003 - Israel begins construction of security wall in Palestinian territories despite international condemnation.
2004 - Sharon withdraws Israeli soldiers from Gaza Strip. Forces removal of nearly 20, 000 Israeli settlers from Gaza.
Recent Developments 2004 – Yasser Arafat dies. Mahmoud Abbas assumes control over Palestinian Authority in 2005 elections. 2006 – Hamas wins majority of parliamentary seats in Palestinian elections. United States cuts aid to Palestinians in response. 2006 - Ehud Olmert elected prime minister after Sharon suffers stroke. June 2006 – Israeli warships accused of killing Palestinian family on Gaza beach. Hamas kidnaps Israeli soldiers. Hezbollah begins firing rockets into Israel from Lebanon. Israel responds with air-strikes on Hezbollah and eventually entering southern Lebanon.
Hezbollah Control of Southern Lebanon Hezbollah Leader Hassan Nasrallah 2006 Lebanon War
Israeli Leadership in 1990 s Yitzhak Rabin Shimon Perez (1992 -1995) Labor (1995 -1996) Labor Benjamin Ehud Barak (1999 Netanyahu (1996 -2001) Labor -1999) Likud (Consolidation)
Israeli Leadership Since 2 nd Intifada Ariel Sharon Ehud Olmert (2001 -2006) (2006 -2009) Likud -> Kadima (forward) Kadima Benjamin Netanyahu (2009 -Present) Likud
Isreali Political Spectrum
Palestinian Authority Leadership Yasser Arafat (1996 -2004) Mahmoud Abbas(2004 -Present) Fatah
Hamas derives most support from Gaza strip. Fatah has most of its support in the West Bank. Since 2006, President Abbas has attempted to oust and replace Haniyeh as prime minister. At present, the Palestinian authority is effectively divided.
Ismail Haniyeh Salam Fayyad Hamas Prime Minister in Gaza Fatah Prime Minister in West Bank