IslandBased FMPs Choosing Species for Federal Management within

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Island-Based FMPs Choosing Species for Federal Management within an MSA Context U. S. Department

Island-Based FMPs Choosing Species for Federal Management within an MSA Context U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 1

Outcomes of the 152 nd Caribbean Council Meeting • Establish a seven-member expert panel

Outcomes of the 152 nd Caribbean Council Meeting • Establish a seven-member expert panel to apply the full suite of selection criteria to develop a draft list of species to manage within each of the Puerto Rico, St. Thomas/St. John, and St. Croix FMPs. • Those draft species lists will be reviewed by the DAPs in July 2015, then brought back to the Council for consideration at their August 2015 meeting. • Using each species list as a guide, Council staff will then begin developing alternatives for Action 2 (species groupings), Action 3 (reference points), and additional actions as appropriate. • The tentative timeline for development of these FMPs includes presentation of a Public Hearing Draft to the Council no later than their spring, 2016, meeting. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 2

Action 1: Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean Three approaches 1)

Action 1: Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean Three approaches 1) Alternative 1: Bring everything from the old FMPs into the new FMPs. 2) Alternative 2: Choose any combination of the criterions under alternative 3: 3) Alternative 3: Use a stepwise selection process: A) Include for management those species that are classified as overfished in U. S. Caribbean waters based on NOAA Fisheries’ determination, or for which historically identified harvest is now prohibited due to their ecological importance as habitat (corals presently included in the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMP) or habitat engineers (midnight, blue, rainbow parrotfish), or those species for which seasonal closures or size limits apply; B) From the remainder, exclude from federal management those species that have been determined to infrequently occur in federal waters based on expert analysis guided by available data; From the remainder, include for management those species who are biologically vulnerable, constrained to a specific habitat that renders them particularly vulnerable, or have an essential ecological value, as determined by expert analysis ; From the remainder, include those species possessing economic importance to the nation or regional economy based on a threshold of landings or value separately determined for each of the recreational, commercial, and aquarium trade sectors as appropriate (e. g. , top 90%) and those representing an important component of bycatch, U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 3 as established by expert analysis. C) D)

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 1: Bring everything

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 1: Bring everything from the old FMPs into the new FMPs: Reef fish = 81 species plus 58 species of aquarium trade invertebrates Spiny lobster = 1 species Queen conch = 1 species Corals = 94 species of corals and 63 species of aquarium trade invertebrates U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 4

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 2: 2) Choose

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 2: 2) Choose any combination of the following choice factors : A. Include for management those species that are classified as overfished in U. S. Caribbean waters based on NOAA Fisheries’ determination, or for which historically identified harvest is now prohibited due to their ecological importance as habitat (corals presently included in the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMP) or habitat engineers (midnight, blue, rainbow parrotfish), or those species for which seasonal closures or size limits apply; B. Exclude from federal management those species that have been determined to infrequently occur in federal waters based on expert analysis guided by available data; C. Include for management those species who are biologically vulnerable, constrained to a specific habitat that renders them particularly vulnerable, or have an essential ecological value, as determined by expert analysis; D. Include those species possessing economic importance to the nation or regional economy based on a threshold of landings or value separately determined for each of the recreational, commercial, and aquarium trade sectors as appropriate (e. g. , top 90%) and those representing an important component of bycatch, as U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 5 established by expert analysis.

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 3: 3) Use

Choosing Species to Manage in the U. S. Caribbean DISCUSSION Alternative 3: 3) Use a stepwise selection process: A. Include for management those species that are classified as overfished in U. S. Caribbean waters based on NOAA Fisheries’ determination, or for which historically identified harvest is now prohibited due to their ecological importance as habitat (corals presently included in the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMP) or habitat engineers (midnight, blue, rainbow parrotfish), or those species for which seasonal closures or size limits apply; B. From the remainder, exclude from federal management those species that have been determined to infrequently occur in federal waters based on expert analysis guided by available data; C. From the remainder, include for management those species who are biologically vulnerable, constrained to a specific habitat that renders them particularly vulnerable, or have an essential ecological value, as determined by expert analysis; D. From the remainder, include those species possessing economic importance to the nation or regional economy based on a threshold of landings or value separately determined for each of the recreational, commercial, and aquarium U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 6 trade sectors as appropriate (e. g. , top 90%) and those representing an important

From the Remainder: Are they harvested predominately from federal waters? If NOT, they should

From the Remainder: Are they harvested predominately from federal waters? If NOT, they should not be included for federal management. This is a fundamental determination. Unfortunately, we have little suitable data regarding harvest location, but some depth distribution data are available and provided. Shelf edge = shallow-water/deep-water break. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 7

From the Remainder: IF they fall within federal waters based on above criteria, are

From the Remainder: IF they fall within federal waters based on above criteria, are they: -biologically vulnerable -constrained to a specific habitat that renders them particularly vulnerable -have an essential ecological value U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 9

From the Remainder: FINALLY, are there any remaining species who: -possess economic importance to

From the Remainder: FINALLY, are there any remaining species who: -possess economic importance to the nation or regional economy based on a threshold of landings or value separately determined for each of the recreational, commercial, and aquarium trade sectors -do they represent an important component of bycatch THESE DETERMINATIONS ARE BASED ON DISCUSSIONS FROM EXPERT PANEL U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 10

Two Important Notes: 1) If, in the future, another species is identified as meeting

Two Important Notes: 1) If, in the future, another species is identified as meeting these criteria and therefore is appropriate for inclusion, it can be added by amendment 2) In the case of a developing fishery, immediate action can be taken by emergency rule, providing time to plan and respond U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 11

Action 2: Establish stock complexes in the Fishery Management Unit (FMU). 1) Alternative 1:

Action 2: Establish stock complexes in the Fishery Management Unit (FMU). 1) Alternative 1: No Action. Organize stocks in the FMU based on the stock complexes historically managed under the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch, and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMPs 2) Alternative 2: Do not organize the stocks in the FMU in stock complexes. 3) Alternative 3: Organize stocks in the FMU into stock complexes based on criteria developed by the Council and their SSC in cooperation with NMFS’ Southeast Fisheries Science Center and Southeast Regional Office. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 12

Action 3: Define Management Reference Points Action 3 (a): Establish a year sequence for

Action 3: Define Management Reference Points Action 3 (a): Establish a year sequence for determining mean or median annual landings for each stock in the FMU. Alternative 1: No Action. Use the time series in the U. S. Caribbean 2010 or 2011 Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit (ACLs) Amendment to establish management reference points or proxies for stocks in the FMU. Alternative 2: Use the longest year sequence of reliable landings data to establish management reference points or proxies for stocks in the FMU. Alternative 3. Use the most recent three years of available landings data to establish management reference points or proxies for stocks in the FMU. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 13

Action 3 a: Possible Year Sequences St. Croix Commercial Alternative 1 1999 -2005 (2010

Action 3 a: Possible Year Sequences St. Croix Commercial Alternative 1 1999 -2005 (2010 ACL) and 1999 -2008 (2011 ACL) Alternative 2 Alternative 3 1999 -2014 2012 -2014 Puerto Rico Commercial Alternative 1 1999 -2005 (2010 ACL) and 1988 -2009 (2011 ACL) Alternative 2 Alternative 3 1988 -2014 2012 -2014 St. Thomas/St. John Commercial 2000 -2005 (2010 ACL) and 2000 -2008 (2011 ACL) 2000 -2014 2012 -2014 Puerto Rico Recreational 2000 -2005 (2010 ACL) and 2000 -2009 (2011 ACL) 2000 -2014 2012 -2014 U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 14

Action 3 b: Establish management reference points for stocks in the FMU. Action 3

Action 3 b: Establish management reference points for stocks in the FMU. Action 3 (b): Establish management reference points for stocks in the FMU. Alternative 1: No Action. For stocks in the FMU, retain the management reference points or proxies presently used for species groups within the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch, and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMPs. Alternative 2(a) through 2(m): For stocks in the FMU, establish management reference points or proxies based on the year sequence of landings data as defined in Action 3(a) and chosen in the following table. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 15

Action 3 b: Options to establish management reference points for stocks in FMU. REFERENCE

Action 3 b: Options to establish management reference points for stocks in FMU. REFERENCE POINT Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) Alternative 2(a) Alternative 2(b) Overfishing Limit (OFL) Alternative 2(c) Alternative 2(d) MSY proxy = Median annual landings selected by Council in Action 3(a). MSY proxy = Mean annual landings selected by Council in Action 3(a). OFL = MSY proxy adjusted using the ORCS scalar; overfishing occurs when annual landings exceed the OFL, unless NMFS’ Southeast Fisheries Science Center (in consultation with the Caribbean Fishery Management Council and it’s SSC) determines the overage occurred because data collection/monitoring improved, rather than because landings actually increased. OFL = MSY proxy; overfishing occurs when annual landings exceed the OFL, unless NMFS’ Southeast Fisheries Science Center (in consultation with the Caribbean Fishery Management Council and it’s SSC) determines the overage occurred because data collection/monitoring improved, rather than because landings actually increased. Acceptable Biological Catch Control Rule (ABC) ABC= OFL Alternative 2(e) ABC= [OFL x 0. 90] Alternative 2(f) ABC= [OFL x 0. 85] Alternative 2(g) ABC= [OFL x 0. 75] Alternative 2(h) U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page Optimum Yield(OY)/Annual Catch Limit 16

Action 4: Ecosystem Species (EC)? To be consider an EC species, the species should:

Action 4: Ecosystem Species (EC)? To be consider an EC species, the species should: § (A) Be a non-target species or nontarget stock; § (B) Not be determined to be subject to overfishing, approaching overfished, or overfished; § (C) Not be likely to become subject to overfishing or overfished, according to the best available information, in the absence of conservation and management measures; and § (D) Not generally be retained for sale or personal use. Occasional retention of the species would not, in and of itself, preclude consideration of the species under the EC classification. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 17

Draft Timeline Approve list of species for management. Discuss additional Actions and Alternatives. Council

Draft Timeline Approve list of species for management. Discuss additional Actions and Alternatives. Council tasks staff to develop public hearing draft (PHD). August 2015 Council Meeting October 2015 SSC Meeting December 2015 Council Meeting January 2016 SSC Meeting March 2016 Council Meeting Continue work developing management reference points Council selects preferred alternatives, approves public hearing draft, and goes out for public hearings for each FMP and EIS. Provide charge to APs to review and comment June 2016 Public Hearings August 2016 Council Meeting Review outcomes of public hearings October 2016 SERO Staff finalizes FMPs December 2016 Council Meeting Approve FMPs for Secretarial submission Start the development of management reference points SERO presents draft actions and alternatives. SERO works on making final changes to the actions and alternatives based on Council feedback. Completed PHD document by the Council meeting in Spring 2016 U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 18

Background Slides: U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 19

Background Slides: U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 19

Alternative 3 Criterion A – Puerto Rico Species for Inclusion A. Overfished or Prohibited

Alternative 3 Criterion A – Puerto Rico Species for Inclusion A. Overfished or Prohibited Harvest + 94 species/species groups of prohibited corals 1. GOLIATH GROUPER 2. GROUPER, NASSAU 3. PARROTFISH, MIDNIGHT 4. PARROTFISH, BLUE 5. PARROTFISH, RAINBOW 6. CONCH, QUEEN 7. 94 SPECIES/SPECIES GROUPS OF PROHIBITED CORALS B. Seasonal Closures 7. SNAPPER, BLACK 8. GROUPER, YELLOWEDGE 9. HIND, RED 10. GROUPER, RED 11. SNAPPER, MUTTON 12. SNAPPER, BLACKFIN 13. SNAPPER, LANE 14. SNAPPER, SILK 15. GROUPER, BLACK 16. GROUPER, TIGER 17. GROUPER, YELLOWFIN 18. SNAPPER, VERMILION C. Federal Size Limits 19. SNAPPER, YELLOWTAIL 20. LOBSTER, CARIBBEAN SPINY Total # of species included under Alternative 3 Criterion A = 20 of a total of 332 species with reported landings, PLUS 94 corals.

Alternative 3 Criterion A – St. Thomas/St. John Species for Inclusion A. Overfished &

Alternative 3 Criterion A – St. Thomas/St. John Species for Inclusion A. Overfished & Prohibited Harvest 1. GOLIATH GROUPER 2. GROUPER, NASSAU 3. PARROTFISH, MIDNIGHT 4. PARROTFISH, BLUE 5. PARROTFISH, RAINBOW 6. CONCH, QUEEN C. Federal Size Limits B. Seasonal Closures 7. SNAPPER, BLACK 8. GROUPER, YELLOWEDGE 9. HIND, RED 10. GROUPER, RED 11. SNAPPER, MUTTON 12. SNAPPER, BLACKFIN 13. SNAPPER, LANE 14. SNAPPER, SILK 15. GROUPER, BLACK 16. GROUPER, TIGER 17. GROUPER, YELLOWFIN 18. SNAPPER, VERMILION 19. SNAPPER, YELLOWTAIL 20. LOBSTER, CARIBBEAN SPINY Total # of species included under Alternative 3 Criterion A = 20 of a total of 332 species with reported landings.

Alternative 3 Criterion A - St. Croix Species for Inclusion A. Overfished & Prohibited

Alternative 3 Criterion A - St. Croix Species for Inclusion A. Overfished & Prohibited Harvest 1. GOLIATH GROUPER 2. GROUPER, NASSAU 3. PARROTFISH, MIDNIGHT 4. PARROTFISH, BLUE 5. PARROTFISH, RAINBOW C. Federal Size Limits B. Seasonal Closures 6. SNAPPER, BLACK 7. GROUPER, YELLOWEDGE 8. HIND, RED 9. GROUPER, RED 10. SNAPPER, MUTTON 11. SNAPPER, BLACKFIN 12. SNAPPER, LANE 13. SNAPPER, SILK 14. GROUPER, BLACK 15. GROUPER, TIGER 16. GROUPER, YELLOWFIN 17. SNAPPER, VERMILION 18. SNAPPER, YELLOWTAIL 19. LOBSTER, CARIBBEAN SPINY 20. PARROTFISH, STRIPED 21. PARROTFISH, PRINCESS 22. PARROTFISH, QUEEN 23. PARROTFISH, REDBAND 24. PARROTFISH, REDTAIL 25. PARROTFISH, REDFIN 26. PARROTFISH, STOPLIGHT 27. CONCH, QUEEN Total # of species included under Alternative 3 Criterion A = 27 of a total of 332 species with reported landings.

National Standard 7 Specific Criteria for Determining Inclusion Not every fishery needs regulations. Criteria

National Standard 7 Specific Criteria for Determining Inclusion Not every fishery needs regulations. Criteria in deciding if a fishery needs management through regulations implementing an FMP, the following general factors should be considered, among others: 1) The importance of the fishery to the Nation and the regional economy. 2) The condition of the stock or stocks of fish and whether an FMP can improve or maintain that condition. 3) The extent to which the fishery could be or is already adequately managed by states, by state/Federal programs, by federal regulations pursuant to FMPs or international commissions, or by industry self-regulation, consistent with the policies and standards of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 23

National Standard 7 Specific Criteria for Determining Inclusion (cont. ) 4) The need to

National Standard 7 Specific Criteria for Determining Inclusion (cont. ) 4) The need to resolve competing interests and conflicts among user groups and whether an FMP can further that resolution. 5) The economic condition of a fishery and whether an FMP can produce more efficient utilization. 6) The needs of a developing fishery and whether an FMP can foster orderly growth. 7) The costs associated with an FMP, balanced against the benefits. U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 24

Proposed Changes to National Standard 1: Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while

Proposed Changes to National Standard 1: Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from each fishery for the U. S. fishing industry. Stocks that Require Conservation & Management • Proposes that a stock requires conservation and management if the following two criteria are met: • Predominantly caught in Federal waters; and • Overfished or subject to overfishing, or likely to become overfished or subject to overfishing. • Proposes 10 additional factors that may lead to determination that a stock requires conservation and management (next slide) U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 25

Conservation & Management: Other factors to consider in determining the need for conservation and

Conservation & Management: Other factors to consider in determining the need for conservation and Factors management: (i) The stock is an important component of the marine environment. (ii) The stock is caught by the fishery. (iii) Whether an FMP can improve or maintain the condition of the stocks. (iv) The stock is a target of a fishery. (v) The stock is important to commercial, recreational, or subsistence users. (vi) The fishery is important to the Nation and to the regional economy. (vii) The need to resolve competing interests and conflicts among user groups and whether an FMP can further that resolution. (viii) The economic condition of a fishery and whether an FMP can produce more efficient utilization. (ix) The needs of a developing fishery, and whether an FMP can foster orderly growth. (x) The extent to which the fishery could be or is already adequately managed by states, by state/Federal programs, by Federal regulations U. S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 26