- Slides: 29
Interactive Map – Islamic Empires n http: //highered. mcgrawhill. com/sites/0072957549/student_view 0/chapter 2 8/interactive_map_quiz. html
CCOT – Your Task n OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1300 – 1750) n MUGHAL EMPIRE (1530 – 1750) n Describe at beginning of time period n Identify three changes and ANALYZE these changes – why did this change occur and how did that impact society? (make sure to include dates for periodization) n Identify at least one continuity n Describe at end of time period n Attempt a thesis statement
Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal n History of Ottoman Empire actually extends before 1450 n As the Mongol Empire fell, the Muslim Ottoman Empire (founded by Osman Bey) rose in Anatolia to unify the region and challenge the Byzantine Empire n However, collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 makes 1450 a good starting point for the Islamic Empires n Ottomans made Constantinople their capital city, renamed it Istanbul and converted cathedrals (i. e. Hagia Sophia) into mosques n Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religions n Within 100 years, the Ottomans conquered most of the regions previously held by the ancient Roman Empire, except for Italy westward
n As the empire grew, so did religious persecution n To conquer large territories, Ottomans used Janissaries* n Much of this expansion occurred during the reign of Selim I, who came to power in 1512 n Claimed that he was the rightful heir to Islamic tradition under the Arab caliphs n Eight years later, Suleiman I (the Magnificent) rose to power and built up the Ottoman military and encouraged the development of the arts n Experienced a golden age under his reign (1520 – 1566)
n Ottomans pushed through Hungary and tried to move into Austria (taking advantage of the weakening of the Roman Empire during the Protestant Reformation) n In 1529, the empire laid siege on Vienna, a significant cultural center for Europe n If they had been successful here, the Turks could have easily moved into the unstable Holy Roman Empire n Although Austrian princes and the Ottomans battled continually for the next century, Vienna was as far as the Ottomans got
n Still, the Ottoman Empire lasted until 1922, making it one of the world’s most significant empires. n It greatly expanded the reach of Islam, and kept the powers of Eastern Europe unstable n Impact? Western European powers were allowed to dominate. n Western Europeans were able to circumnavigate their Eastern neighbors and trade directly with India, China and their American colonies
Safavids n Chief rivals of the Ottomans were their eastern neighbors, the Safavids n Savafids were a centralized state based on military conquest and dominated by Shia Islam n Location between the Ottomans and the Mughals, in what is modern-day Iran resulted in: n Contentious relationships between the Muslim states n Alliances with Europeans against the Ottomans n Continuation of the rift between the Sunni and Shia sects
Mughals n In 1526, Babur, a leader who claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan but was very much Muslim, invaded northern India and defeated the Delhi Sultanate (also Muslim) n Babur established a new empire, which dominated the Indian subcontinent for the next 300 years n Mughal Empire united northern and southern India for the first time n Hinduism had been firmly established in southern India n Babur’s grandson, Akbar, who ruled from 1556 -1605 was able to unify much of India by governing under a policy of religious toleration
n Eliminated the jizya, the head tax on Hindus and tried to improve the position of women by attempting to eliminate sati, the practice in which high-caste Hindu women would thrown themselves on their husbands’ funeral pyres n Akbar even married a Hindu woman and accepted Hindus into government positions n For nearly 100 years, Hindus and Muslims lived side-by-side and become more geographically mixed n Result: golden age of art, architecture and thought n Under Shah Jahan, Akbar’s grandson, the Taj Mahal was built (as a memorial to his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal) n However, after Akbar, two developments forever changed India
n First – religious toleration ended n Muslim government reinstated the jizya and Hindu temples were destroyed. n By 1700, Muslims began to persecute Hindus and Hindus were organizing against her Muslim rulers and neighbors n Second – arrival of Europeans n In the early 17 th Century, the Portuguese and British were fighting each other for Indian Ocean trade routes n In the beginning, Portugal had established trade with the city of Goa, where it also sent Christian missionaries
n By 1661, the British East India Company had control of trade in Bombay n By 1691, the British founded Calcutta as a trading outpost n Mughal emperors regarded Europeans as relatively harmless and tolerated trade n However, the Industrial Revolution turned Britain into an imperial superpower n Indians had little idea that within a century, a British woman named Victoria would be crowned Empress of India
Gunpowder Empires Reading n Pages 484 -485 Stearns Book
Ottoman Empire Map
Mughal India Map
Suleyman & Akbar Comparison n Suleyman – Mc. Kay p. 683 -686 n Akbar – Mc. Kay p. 692 -695
Suleyman Both Akbar -Jitza toward Orthodox Christians -The Magnificent -Court Grandeur -$80 million revenues -Water systems -Golden Age - Creativity in carpet weaving, ceramics, architecture, poetry, geography, math, medicine, astronomy -Sinan (architecture) -Medicine -Code of laws -Religious Toleration -Akbar staffed his bureaucracy with Muslim and non-Muslim well trained officials (Hindu, Spanish Jesuit) -Expanded Empire -Golden Age -Jizya repealed for Hindus -The Great -Royal mint -Persian Language -24, 000 books in his library -Rights of women
Rights of Women n Lady Montague (British woman in the Ottoman Empire) – from Akbar reading (p. 685 -686) n How did she describe the use of the veil? n What is her POV?
Culture Shock Reading n Mc. Kay – p. 704 n 1. What does the document reveal about the Jesuits’ relations with Akbar? n 2. Consider the Jesuits’ reactions to the Hindu practice of suttee Should they have interfered? n 3. Contrast the Jesuits’ reaction to suttee and to the transvestite prostitutes.
Decline of the Ottoman n Ottoman Empire had reached its height in the 1500 s n By 1512, was the leading naval power in the Mediterranean regions n Conquered Syria in 1516 and Egypt in 1517 n 1526 – conquered much of Hungary in the Battle of Mohaca n After this battle, European powers feared the Turks would overrun Europe n However, the Turks failed to capture Vienna in 1683
Austrian Increase Map
Ottoman Decline Map
Causes for the Decline n Too large to maintain n Had been built upon war and adding territory but when new lands were unavailable, they had less of a tax base (no one else will have the wealth of Suleyman) but they didn’t reduce the bureaucracy or army as a result n Squeezed the peasants for more taxes and they rebelled n Corruption of officials n Switch from princes who were given experience in ruling to possible successors kept in confinement, who spent their time with drinking, drugs and sex
The Twentieth Wife Reading n Are all the women in the harem “equal” in power? If not, how is power distributed? n What role do the eunichs, especially Hoshiyar Khan, play?
Cage System Reading n Originally, the Ottoman ruler had been a tribal chief n As the Ottomans began to build a complex state, the sultan emerged n Sultan became padishah (emperor, “Shadow of the Provider”) after conquest of Constantinople and the Balkans n After the death of Suleyman, the quality of rulers declined n Due, in part, to the manner of succession to the throne (could lead to bloody struggles between rival brothers)
n Mehmet II decreed the new sultan could execute his brothers in the interest of political stability n When Mehmet III took the throne in 1595, all 19 of his brothers were strangled n After Ahmed (Mehmet III’s successor), the practice stopped and the “cage system” began n All Ottoman princes were kept in a “cage” within the palace along with their entourage n Princes emerged from the cage once – to reign or to die n Few sultans raised in this system were capable, since they had no prior experience in political office
They did not keep pace with European advancements: n Failed to recognize that Europeans had much of worth to offer/were a threat (when has this happened before? ? ) n Portuguese (followed by Dutch, British, French…) trade in the Indian Ocean bypassed the Ottoman controlled Silk Roads and Arab ports reducing profits n Fell behind the Europeans in the critical art of waging war: n Relied on older military technology (siege guns: cannons) but the Europeans advanced beyond this to handguns, etc. n In areas that did have advanced weaponry, they lacked the transportation and communication infrastructure to get it where they needed it QUICKLY n “Gunpowder Empires” shifted global power from China, Japan, Ottoman, to Europeans!
Capitulations n 1536+ French merchants (later British, Austria…) could go anywhere buying and selling in the empire n Europe flooded the empire with silver (from the Americas) to buy raw materials (wheat, wool, copper, precious metals) causing inflation AND leaving too few of these materials available for Ottoman craft industries n Europe sold finished goods back to the Turks, contributing to the financial crisis n By the mid-1800 s, the empire is nicknamed: “the sick man of Europe” to its end at the conclusion of WWI
Capitulations - From Mc. Kay n More than any other single factor, a series of agreements known as capitulations, which the Ottoman government signed with European powers, contributed to the Ottoman decline. A trade compact signed in 1536 and renewed in 1569 virtually exempted French merchants from Ottoman law and allowed them to travel and buy and sell throughout the sultan’s dominions and to pay low customs duties on French imports and exports. In 1590, in spite of strong French opposition, a group of English merchants gained the right to trade in Ottoman territory in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass, and tin for his war with Persia. In 1615, as part of a twenty-year peace treaty, the capitulation rights already given to French and English businessmen were extended to the Hapsburgs. These capitulations progressively gave European merchants an economic stranglehold on Ottoman trade and commerce. In the nineteenth century, the Ottoman empire was beset by the loss of territory, the pressures of European capitalistic imperialism, and unresolved internal problems; Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (1825 -1855) called it “the sick man of Europe. ”