Islamic Empires AKA Gunpowder Empires or BlackPowder Safavid

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Islamic Empires AKA Gunpowder Empires… or Black-Powder

Islamic Empires AKA Gunpowder Empires… or Black-Powder

Safavid Empire

Safavid Empire

How did the Safavid Empire emerge? • Safavid Empire arose in the Persia region

How did the Safavid Empire emerge? • Safavid Empire arose in the Persia region following the short-lived empire of Timur (Tamerlane) • Emerged with Mongol/Turkic roots • Founder Shah Ismail (reigned 1501 -1524) claimed ancient Persian title of shah. • Adopted Persian language • Proclaimed Shia Islam the official religion; imposed it on Sunni population • Traced origins to twelve ancient Shiite imams • Ismail believed to be the twelfth, or “hidden, ” imam, or even an incarnation of Allah

How did the Safavid Empire relate to other Islamic empires? • Sunni Ottoman Empire

How did the Safavid Empire relate to other Islamic empires? • Sunni Ottoman Empire and Shia Safavid Empire fought periodically between 1534 and 1639 • Battle of Chaldiran (1514) • Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman Empire • Safavids considered gunpowder and firearms unmanly; were crushed by Ottomans at Chaldiran • Prevented Safavid expansion into west

How did the Safavid Empire expand to significance? • Shah Abbas I the Great

How did the Safavid Empire expand to significance? • Shah Abbas I the Great (1588 -1629) revitalized the Safavid empire • Modernized military; sought European alliances against Ottomans • Involved in Afro-Eurasian trade networks • New capital at Isfahan; centralized administration • Strong push by Abbas to beautify and culturally advance Isfahan • Particularly fond of mosques

Why did Safavid Empire decline? • Steppe tradition of removing power rivals made succession

Why did Safavid Empire decline? • Steppe tradition of removing power rivals made succession difficult • Death of Abbas caused period of internal disorder

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

What was the Ottoman Empire? • The Islamic world’s most important empire in the

What was the Ottoman Empire? • The Islamic world’s most important empire in the early modern period. • In power from 1289 – 1923 – 634 years! • Huge territory: Anatolia, eastern Europe, much of Middle Each, North African coast, lands around Black Sea • Founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi) • Sultans claimed the title “caliph” and the legacy of the Abbasids • Effort to bring new unity to Islamic world

How did the Ottoman Empire expand to cover such a large territory? • Aggressive

How did the Ottoman Empire expand to cover such a large territory? • Aggressive toward western Christian lands (Byzantine) • Organized ghazi into formidable military machine • Central role of the Janissaries • Slave troops forcibly conscripted from Balkan populations • Given control over artillery and firearms extremely potent fights force • Janissaries rose into high positions in Ottoman court policies • Effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges • Mehmed II the Conqueror (reigned 1451 – 1481) • Captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital • Absolute monarchy; centralized state • Expanded to Serbia, Greece, Albania; attacked Italy • Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520 – 1566) • Suleiman the Magnificent expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe • Famous 1529 siege of Vienna • Europeans feared Turkish expansion • Suleiman also built a navy powerful enough to challenge European fleets • Controlled eastern Mediterranean

How did the Ottoman Empire affect cultural exchanges? • In Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), most

How did the Ottoman Empire affect cultural exchanges? • In Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), most of the conquered Christians converted to Islam • In the Balkans, Christian subjects mostly remained Christian • Ottomans accommodated the Christian churches • Many Christians welcomed Ottoman conquest • Ottomans taxed less and were less oppressive • Christian churches received considerable autonomy • Balkan elites were accepted among the Ottoman elite without conversion • Jewish refugee from Spain had more opportunities in the Ottoman Empire • Devshirme: Tribute of boys paid by Christian Balkan communities • Boys were converted to Islam, trained to serve the state • The devshirme was a means of social mobility • Some Europeans admired Ottoman rule • Philosopher Jean Bodin (16 th century) praised Ottoman religious tolerance • Ottoman women enjoyed relative freedom

What caused the fall of the Ottoman Empire? • Janissaries were resistant to military

What caused the fall of the Ottoman Empire? • Janissaries were resistant to military technology improvements – that may have weakened their hold on power • Overextension in the 17 th century caused contraction of empire boundaries • Reliance on expansion meant weaknesses were revealed • Increased taxes to offset the lack of expansion • In 1571, a defeat at Lepanto to European Christian coalition signaled the end of their dominance of the Mediterranean • However, they still held their empire into the 20 th century (the picture to the right is of an actual Ottoman janissary from the early 20 th century… first photograph in WHAP!)

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

How did the Mughal Empire arise? • Babur (1523 – 1530), founder of the

How did the Mughal Empire arise? • Babur (1523 – 1530), founder of the Mughal (“Mongol”) dynasty in India • Central Asian Turkish adventurers invaded India in 1523, seized Delhi in 1526 • By his death in 1530, the Mughal Empire embraced most of India • Akbar (reigned 1556 – 1605), a brilliant charismatic ruler Created a centralized, absolutist government Expanded to most of the rest of India Significantly improved conditions of both women and the poor Encouraged religious tolerance between Muslims and Hindus Championed notion of a syncretic religion called “divine faith, ” and a hybrid Indian-Persian-Turkic culture • Encouraged intermarriage of Hindu & Muslim elites • Eliminated use of the jizya (per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens, who meet certain criteria) by non. Muslims • Brought many Hindus into political-military elite • • • Huge reason for long-term success of the empire

How did the Mughal Empire fall? • Aurangzeb (1659 – 1707) • Expanded the

How did the Mughal Empire fall? • Aurangzeb (1659 – 1707) • Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinent • Revoked policies of toleration • Hindus were taxed, temples were destroyed, imposed the jizya • Almost 20% of the population was Muslim; most of the rest were Hindu • Opposition movements fatally weakened the Mughal Empire after 1707

Islamic Empires Compared

Islamic Empires Compared

What did all three empires have in common? • All three Islamic empires were

What did all three empires have in common? • All three Islamic empires were military creations • Authority of rulers derived from military prowess of rulers • Relied on power of gunpowder – known as “Gunpowder Empires” • Devotion to Islam encouraged rulers to extend their faith to new lands • To varying degrees, however • Continued steppe traditions • Autocratic: emperors imposed their will on the state • Ongoing problems with royal succession • Ottoman rulers could legally kill his brothers after taking the throne • Royal women often wielded great influence on politics • Toleration of religious diversity – generally • In Ottoman Empire, conquered peoples were protected, granted religious & civil autonomy in their own communities • In India, the Muslim rulers closely cooperated with Hindu majority

What did all three empires have in common? Continued… • Food – crops were

What did all three empires have in common? Continued… • Food – crops were the basis of all three empires • Wheat & rice • Little impact by new American crops • Imports of coffee & tobacco were very popular • Significant cultural patronage of Islamic emperors • All three sponsored arts & public works: mosques, palaces, schools, hospitals, etc. • Istanbul, the ottoman capital, a bustling city of a million people • Encouraged blending of Islamic & Byzantine architectural elements • Commissioned Christian churches as Islamic mosques – most famous example Hagia Sophia Aya Sofia • Isfahan, Safavid capital, the “queen of Persian cities” • The Taj Mahal, exquisite example of Mughal architecture

How did the three Islamic Empires differ? • Overall, population growth in the three

How did the three Islamic Empires differ? • Overall, population growth in the three empires was less dramatic than in China or Europe • Significant population growth in India from more intense agriculture • Less dramatic growth in Safavid and Ottoman realms • Long-distance trade important to all three empires • Ottoman and Safavid empires even shared segments of the east-west trade routes • Safavids offered silk, carpets, and ceramics to European trading companies • The Mughal empire less attentive to foreign or maritime trading • Mughals permitted stations for English, French, and Dutch trading companies

How did all three decline? • Dynastic decline caused by negligent rulers, factions, and

How did all three decline? • Dynastic decline caused by negligent rulers, factions, and government corruption • Tensions increased when religious conservatives abandoned policies of tolerance • Ottoman conservatives resisted innovations like the telescope and printing press • In Safavid empire: Shiite leaders urged the shahs to persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims, and even the Sufis • In Mughal India, Aurangzeb's policies provoked deep animosity of Hindus • Economic and military decline • Strong economies in sixteenth century; stagnated by eighteenth century • End of territorial expansion; difficult to support armies and bureaucrats • Series of long and costly wars • Officials resorted to raising taxes or corruption to deal with financial problems • Failure to develop trade and industry; lost revenue to European merchants • Military decline • Importing European weapons only promoted European weapon industries • Imported arsenals outdated • Ottomans even purchased military vessels from abroad • Resistance to cultural progress - insularity • Cultural conservatism • Muslims seldom traveled to the West, confident of their superiority • Ignorant of European technological developments--hostile to telescope, 1703 • Resistance to printing press • Introduced by Jewish refugees to Anatolia, late fifteenth century • At first, Ottoman authorities banned printing in Turkish and Arabic • Ban lifted in 1729, but conservatives forced closure of a Turkish press in 1742 • In India, Mughal rulers showed little interest in printing technology • Foreign cultural innovations seen as a threat to political stability