- Slides: 35
Persian Gulf Red Sea Arabian Sea
Arabia • Arabian Peninsula (water on 3 sides) is dominated by deserts • Oasis is green area in a desert fed by underground water
• Desert herders who traveled from oasis to oasis for water are known as nomads (unsettled lifestyle)
TRIBES CARAVANS • Nomads on the Arabian Peninsula grouped together in groups called • Arab merchants transport goods across the desert in (group of traders who travel together)
• Mecca became a very large, wealthy city because it was a crossroads for trade and an important religious site • Mecca is the largest and richest town in Arabia MECCA
The Kaaba is located in Makkah (Mecca) and significant to Muslims because it is believed to be a sacred place.
Jerusalem • The Dome of the Rock, located in Jerusalem is an important religious site for Muslims because it marks the spot where Muhammad ascended to Heaven with Gabriel to meet and speak to God.
Jerusalem • Jerusalem is a sacred site for Muslims, Jews, and Christians.
Muhammad • The religion of Islam was brought to Arabia through the teachings of Muhammad. • Islam: to surrender to the will of God, it is a way of life as well as a religion
Islam • • Religion = Islam Followers = Muslims God = Allah Prophet = Muhammad
Islam • Muhammad upset many merchants of Mecca because he taught that there was only one god (monotheism) • He also taught to people to take care of the needy and poor. • Central Belief: Allah is the one true God and Muhammad is his prophet
• Quran is the holy book of Islam • The name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds is the Sunnah • The Quran and Sunnah provide rules for daily living in Muslim life • .
• • Quran list guidelines such as: Do not eat pork Wash before praying Do not drink alcohol
• Muhammad and his followers left Mecca because they were being persecuted by merchants. • They moved north to Medina (The Prophet’s City).
• Muhammad’s departure from Mecca to Medina became known as the Hegira.
Mosque • Mosque a Muslim house of worship
Five Pillars • Five Pillars of Islam are acts of worship Muslims must fulfill (Basic Rules) 1. shahada (profession of faith)There is only one God (Allah) 2. Salat (daily worship): five times a day; guided by a precise set of rituals 3. zakat(almsgiving): charity % of a Muslim’s income 4. sawm(fast): from sunrise to sunset during the holy time of Ramadan 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca): hijrah is the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah - undertaken once in a lifetime; reminder of equality between all Muslims
Caliph (leaders) • Caliph is a successor to the prophet Muhammad (Messenger of God)
Fatimah • The daughter of Muhammad. Her followers were called the Fatimids. They believed that Muhammad's bloodline was important and that Muslims should live simple lives instead of lavish.
• Abu Bakr: is the first Caliph and unified Arabia into a Muslim state
Sunni / Shia • Sunnis believed any true Muslim could be caliph • Abu Bakr was a Sunni
• Shiites believed Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should rule after Muhammad’s death • Believed all caliphs should be direct descendant of Muhammad
• Cordoba and Baghdad were both centers of culture and learning.
• One reason the Arabs were successful in building their empire was that they were friendly toward other religions and cultures • How did the Arabs treat the people they conquered? They let them practice their own religion.
Sahara • Muhammad’s conquest in A. D. 632 took place in? • The river marked the easternmost extent of Islamic expansion? • the most likely prevented the spread of Islam farther south at this time?
Muslim Achievements • Calligraphy – is a combination of art and literature.
Muslim Achievements • Sufism or Islamic mysticism, enriched Muslim literature by infusing religious beliefs into poetry and stories.
• Muslim mathematicians developed the branch of mathematics known as algebra.
Arabic – language of Arabia and Islam.
“People of the Book” • Muslims believed that Jews and Christians were the people of the book, because they too had sacred holy books
Trade and Conquest Islam spread as Muslim merchants took their religion with them on trips and as Muslim armies conquered new lands
Written Response • Why did the Muslims split into two groups-Sunnis and Shiites--after Muhammad’s death? They argued over who the rightful ruler should be after Muhammad’s death
Written Response • How are Muslims, Christians, and Jews similar in their belief? Monotheism