- Slides: 105
Islam MI 396 Dr. Robert Patton
The Life of Muhammad The Sira, a Political Biography Dr. Robert Patton Missionary to Suriname, South America
Beginning of Muhammad’s life • Father – Abdullah, meaning slave of Allah • Allah – moon god, of the Quraysh, the ruling clan of Mecca.
Early life • • • Abdullah died while his wife was pregnant His mother died when he was 5 years old His grandfather raised him, but died Finally, his uncle Abu Talib raised him All from the Quraysh clan
Tradition • His mother claimed that light from her womb lighted Syrian palaces • Abbysinian Christians wanted to have the infant, and claimed he would be great • Young Muhammad was bonded with a Christian monk Bahira, who invoked the goddesses al-Lat and al-Uzza, but Muhammad would have none of it.
Tradition • Bahira told Abu Talib to guard him; the Jews will be jealous of him • Another saw a mole and fainted. He said that the prophethood had left the Jews and he will kill their scholars • There is no historical record to support these contentions about a tradition of an Arabian prophet
Beginnings • No nation in Arabia – everyone was in a clan, and blood ties were important • Your value came from your tribe • Quraysh were leaders in Mecca for 5 generations, and also the priestly group • Mecca small – ¼ mile x 1/8 mile
The ka’aba • Building with many idols; tradition said that Abraham built it • There was a well called Zam; drink from it • Throw stones at pillars – at the devil • Ritual prayers, circling the Ka’aba while praying all preceded Islam • Black stone was key – probably a meteorite
Early life • Supposedly conception, birth, pregnancy and early life were miraculous • Supposedly Jews and Christians as well as others knew Muhammad was coming • Raised by Abu Talib age 8. Taken to Syria, very sophisticated with writing (Arabic only for business), many Christians there
Marriage • Hired by distant cousin, a wealthy widow called Khadija, as her trading agent. He was known for good character and business sense • Supposedly a slave boy going with him saw 2 angels shielding Muhammad and told Khadija, who saw that he had doubled her fortune.
Marriage • She proposed to him. She was 40; he was 25. They had 6 children; two sons died in childhood, and 4 daughters grew up. • Khadija had a Christian cousin, Waraqa, a convert from Judaism, who believed that a prophet would arise from this people. The Qur’an said that the Jews rejected the prophecied messiah.
Ka’aba rebuilt • They decided to place a roof to prevent theft • They were afraid to demolish the walls, but one man did without problem. A Greek ship had run aground nearby and they used the timber for the roof. • The black stone was installed by the clan members lifting up a cloth with the stone inside
Monotheism • The Jews were strong monotheists – and of course killed Jesus for shirk – claiming to be one with God • Christians were unorthodox – believed in a trinity of God, Jesus, and Mary • People of the book – the Scriptures, as Arabians were polytheists with oral traditions
Monotheism in Mecca • Very few Christians in Mecca • Zayd was a precursor, a monotheist fusing their religion with tribal gods, praying to the Ka’aba, and taught on heaven and hell
Muhammad’s visions • Muhammad would have month long retreats, and circle the Kaaba in prayer • About 40, he was confronted with a vision and commanded to read, and then to recite while in the cave Hira. He complained that he could not read. The angel pressed on him 3 times. He was going to kill himself, but Gabriel revealed himself and called him a prophet of God
Muhammad called a prophet • When he told Khadija, as he was afraid of being crazy or a poet, she told her Christian cousin, who met him, and pronounced that he was a prophet. • Waraqa warned Muhammad that his people would reject him, probably after Waraqa’s death • Khadija became the first convert
One mark described • One tradition states that Khadijah asked Muhammad to look and he saw the angel when sitting on her left thigh, right thigh, and lap – but no more when she removed her veil • Some Muslims contend that even angels cannot look on an unveiled woman – too sinful
Repeated distress • Muhammad became suicidal on several occasions when the angel did not reappear for some time. • Many were skeptical of the source of his revelations
Sources of inspiration • There are many references to the prophets. At first, Muhammad respected the Jews and sought their approval • Some of the Biblical materials came from the Talmud – such as the killing of Abel is that of a whole people, and God saving Abraham from being burned when they threw him into a fire for burning their gods
Muhammad & others • Muhammad becomes furious at those who reject him. The Qur’an is in Arabic, and not in Hebrew or Persian from another source. • Muhammad can ask the people of the Book if his prophecies are true. • Tradition states that a man questioning his authority could not be buried – the ground rejected his dead body repeatedly
Other sources for the Qur’an • There was a Arabic Infancy Gospel that taught that Jesus spoke from the cradle, and made clay animals and gave them life. The parents told the children not to play with Jesus, because he was a wizard. • The Qur’an refers to this: 5: 110
Gnostic views • Gnostics believe that the physical matter is evil, and that Jesus did not have a physical body and could not have been crucified. • Muslims are not worried about this, as the Qur’an was supposed to correct earlier errors, so influence would be expected.
Zoroastrian contribution • Much of the descriptions of heaven, including the houris (virgins), and the delights of the food, drink, and weather are similar
Convenience? • Zaynab, initially wife of Zayd, his son who wanted to divorce, eventually did. Allah himself showed Muhammad that he could marry Zaynab – apparently seen when thinly clad, a beautiful woman
Aisha’s situation • Aisha was in a veiled howdah. Unknown to others, she went to find a necklace which she lost, and was left. A man found her and returned her but rumors was that he had slept with her. These went on for a month • Eventually Muhammad showed that Allah stated that there were not 4 witnesses and thus she was innocent
Results of Aisha’s innocence • Woman’s testimony is not counted except ½ for a man in property. Aisha’s testimony did not count • Rape – 4 men must testify that it occurred. If the rapist denies, the woman may end up being executed fornication
First prayers • He learned that he should prostrate himself four times when at home, twice travelling • Gabriel showed him about ritual cleansing • Abu Talib fell on hard times, and Muhammad took Ali to raise; he became the second convert after Khadijah • He was followed by Abu Bakr
Private preaching • Worship only Allah and not al-Lat and al-’Uzza • Opposed by his uncle Abu Lahab – who either Muhammad or Allah said was doomed • The tribe asked for a miracle, or for Gabriel to speak to them • Once some interrupted their prayers, and one hit a polytheist with a camel jawbone, drawing blood
Public preaching • After 3 years, he preached to about 40 publically, but they were mocked by the Quraysh tribe. This became much more severe when he preached against idols. • A fight came during prayers, and one of the clan injured an Islam man. The tribe offered Abu Talib to give him a man in exchange for killing Muhammad.
Preaching at the fair • The Quraysh tried to warn others that he was a sorcerer, especially at a yearly fair; this only made others curious, and a number of men from Medina were attracted to his preaching • Medina had many Jews, and were used to hearing about monotheism
Fight with Quraysh • More opposition – about 12 converts, and some from another tribe • Muhammad suggested going to Ethiopia or Medina • Allah gives permission for defensive war. They will then establish a poor tax and Islamic law
New support • Muhammad was fine to have a religion, but they wanted tolerance and threatened him. • Hamza, the strongest man in Mecca, supported Muhammad • One offered him money or power, but he refused, and recited the Qur’an
Many arguments • There were many arguments then and the Meccans demanded a sign or miracle from Muhammad, who said that Allah sent him as a messenger, not a miracle-worker. They found a story-teller who went to Medina • Men from Medina were giving 3 questions for Muhammad to answer. His answers, given in places in the Qur’an, were also followed by many others
Abu Bakr saves Bilal • Some of the Quraysh tried to make a slave renounce Islam, but he refused and they tortured him. Eventually Abu Bakr freed him by offering a strong black slave in his place; he did the same with 6 other Muslim slaves
Muslims go to Ethiopia • A number of Muslims left for Ethiopia • One man actually shifted to Islam
Umar • A very strong man, originally hassled Muhammad and everyone feared him • His brother-in-law and sister had converted • He read some of the Qur’an and was impressed and converted to Islam
Boycott • For 2 -3 years, the Quraysh boycotted the Muslims – no selling food or intermarriage • Several strong verses in the Qur’an came against the opponents. • They ridiculed and offered to switch worship to see which worship was the best.
Satanic verses • A • Muhammad decided just to hold three of the gods of the Quraysh tribe along with Allah. The tribe was happy and everyone worshipped together with Muhammad leading. But his conscience bothered him, and Muhammad realized that this was an attack from Satan. This is spoken in the Qur’an as a deceit from Satan, and Muhammad retracted; his relationship with his tribe deteriorated further
Satanic verses • Gabriel showed Muhammad that he was wrong, and Muhammad realized that the suggestion was from Satan. No more worshiip of al-Lat, al-’Uzza and Manat, the “daughters of Allah. ” Allah showed that there was no way that the Muslims would have sons and he onl daughters. He nullified Satan’s attempt
Satanic verses • Many Muslims deny this ever happened • However, the Qur’an does mention one occasion when both believers and unbelievers prayed together
Muhammad and a slave • Muhammad showed interest in a Christian slave. His tribe ridiculed him and said that this was the source of his inspiration
The Night Journey • Muhamv med was awakened 3 times at night by Gabriel; the third time he was placed on a beast – Burraq, between adonkey, and a mule with wings, and brought to Jerusalem. • He was taken to the first heaven, and greeted by Adam. Later he went to other levels, and met others, including Moses and Abraham
The Night Journey • He describes them. He was to choose between drinking a bowl of milk and wine, and chose milk, the correct choice. • He was told to have Muslims pray 50 times a day but Moses said it was too much. It was gradually reduced to 5, the Muhammad refused to ask for more reduction • He was ridiculed by his tribe
The night journey • This is outlined considerable detail in the Sira from Ishaq. He describes many who were tortured to go to hell, the fire of hell, and how the angels greeted Muhammad with a smile. He also saw a beautiful woman there, who was the wife of his adopted son Zaid
Two difficult deaths • Abu Talib, who had raised him and protected him, died; he did not accept Islam though Muhammad asked him to do so • Khadija, who was a great support • Muhammad sought help from 3 brothers in the town of Taif, but they rejected him • A visiting tribe came to the fair, but wanted to be boss of Muhammad if he protected him
Medina comes to the fair • Tension between rich Jews who were getting weaker, and Arabs in Medina • The Jews predicted that a prophet would come and lead them to victory • One Arab tribe the Khazraj, decided to join Muhammad before the Jews – he was probably the predicted prophet, and made the oath (first) at Aqaba
Medina blood oath • The first visit and oath was not a blood oath • A year later, they did make a blood oath to protect Muhammad to the death – second oath at Aqaba. – about 70 men • When they went back to Medina, the city was split. The Muslims continued; the rest with their animism. The Muslims descrated some of their animism totem items.
Tensions increased • Thus far there had been insults between Muhammad and his tribe. They had thrown dust on him. One threw shoes at the other, and the Muslim kept the shoes as a token of war • The Medinans returned; the Quraysh were not looking for a war
An attempt to kill Muhammad • The Muslims left Mecca except Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and Ali • The tribe decided that every clan would work together to kill Muhammad together. Story stated that Muhammad had Ali sleep in his bed, confronted a group, they were blinded and he threw dust on their heads and departed
Leaving for Medina • Muhammad and Abu Bakr left for Medina; Ali stayed behind to finish up business. They hid for three days and then made a 10 day trip • Two groups in Medina – natives and Quraysh. The former were termed Helpers. They set up a pact with treatment of Muslims different from that of Kafirs. Jews would be fine if they supported the Muslims
Prayer in Medina • When an Arab leader died, Muhammad took his position. They set rules in order. • Jews called together with a horn; Christians used a bell • Muslims decided to have a chant from a high place
Muhammad marries Aisha • Muhammad in mid-50 s married Aisha age 9; she was the only virgin he married. She brought her dolls with her to the harem
Increasing tension in Medina • There were many “hypocrites, ” those who pretended to be Jews or Muslims but were secretly in opposition, though they feared for their lives • Rabbis asked difficult questions and Muhammad became angry
Tensions increase in Medina • 5 different tribes there – 3 Jewish, 2 Arab. They had fought with each other. Now the Arabs and Jews were at odds • Muhammad claimed that the Jews had changed scriptures to hide the fact that he was prophesied to be coming. He felt that the Jews who denied that he was a prophet had changed things but were too proud to admit it (Remember that Muhammad is illiterate and cannot read scriptures.
He vilifies the Jews • The Qur’an now states that Jews will be turned into apes, and Christians into swine (5: 59). They accused the Jews of doing the same thing with Moses and resisting him. The Qur’an states that the Jews were accused by Moses of changing the Torah.
Muhammad claims to be the true Jew • When the Jews and Christians state that Muhammad must convert or go to hell, he stated that they were deliberate deceivers and Allah will make them burn in hell. He was the true Jew and follower of Abraham, who was neither Jew nor Christian but a true Muslim
Muhammad changed the kiblah • The kiblah is the direction of prayer. At first, Muhammad prayed toward Jerusalem • But now he prayed toward the Ka’aba
Christians in Medina • Supposedly when Christians came, they knew that Muhammad was prophesied, but the bishop refused Islam because he would lose money and prestige. • They claimed that because Jesus did not change kings or night to day, he was just a prophet and not God. Allah gave him the power to speak from the cradle and make clay birds fly to show that he was a prophet, but not God
Muhammad and Christians • Allah denies the trinity, and any Kafir who claims the trinity will be burned in hell • Jesus is only a messenger, not God • Allah is a better plotter than those who wanted to kill Jesus; he made a double who was crucified and took Jesus to heaven: 4: 156
Jihad • 13 years after first preaching • Medina – 3 groups – Muslims – Jews – Arabs with traditional religion – A few Christians were also apart
Beginning with raid on Najar • Killing became acceptable • Muslims were to stick together, never look to an unbeliever for support, and never to fight against a believer for an unbeliever • Women and children of unbelievers were fair game
First raids • There were seven raids made over the first 2 years or so, without contact – mostly seeking the Quraysh • First group killed during the sacred month in a sacred area. Muhammad originally did not take the spoils, but then wrote that idolatry and resisting Islam is worse than killing. Before that, one killing paid for another, but no longer
Jihad starts • Muhammad took 20% of the spoils. They held other men for ransom • Allah revealed that the sin of rejecting Islam was worse than attacking during the sacred month. • Umar wanted to kill the captives, and Muhammad later felt that killing was better than ransom
Badr • Abu Sufyan with 70 men went on a caravan • Muhammad got an army of 300 to attack – those from both Mecca and Medina • Abu Sufyan discovered the plot and moved the caravan from Badr. • Muhammad plugged the wells between them and the Quraysh army
Badr • Hamza killed the first man • The battle was fierce, with many dying. This is the first time that persons killed their own family – in the cause of Allah. The first martyr was guaranteed paradise. • The Muslims were victorious, killed enemies, captured some for ransom, and a lot of booty
Qur’an war chest • To resists Muhammad is a death sentence from Allah • Don’t turn your back except tactical maneuver against any Kaffir • The awe of Muhammad is the fear of Allah • The strength of the fighting is in piety, not in numbers
No more taking captives • They would no longer take captives for ransom, but kill all Kafirs – Saed’s request • The spoils of war would finance Islam • Islam melded universal command, and a fused religious and political machine together • Started with 150 poor Muslims, picked up another 100 -150, but now is a powerful army
Banu Qaynuqa jews • Muhammad besieged the tribe, and eventually they surrendered. An Arab ally begged for safety for them • Muhammad took all the goods and wealth and drove them out of Medina
Al Ashraf the Jew assassinated • Al Ashraf wrote poetry criticizing Islam • A Muslim offered to kill him. He was allowed by Muhammad to lie to deceive him. • The muslim pretended to befriend him, but then set a trap and killed him. • Note expediency – lying is OK to help Muhammad
The battle of Uhud • The Meccans returned for revenge. The Muslims did not stay in an encampment where they had an advantage • At first they won, but the archers left their post to get booty, and the cavalry attacked from the rear and won for Mecca
The lesson of Uhud • The Muslims expected to win, and were defeated. • Muhammad told them that their defeat was because they failed to hold themselves as good Muslims, and failed to obey him explicitly. But Allah loved them enough not to totally destroy them. They should not focus on booty, but on victory for Allah
After Uhud • There were two situations where there was deceit and betrayal. On the second occasion, Muhammad lost 69 of his best fighters. • On another occasion, he sent Abdullah to assassinate the leader of a coalition against him. The assassin succeeded and was rewarded for his deed.
Jewish tribe #2 from Medina • Another tribe made a plan to kill Muhammad but he found out and besieged them. He burned many of their date palms. • They offered to leave without fighting, just taking what their camels would carry • All the spoil went to Muhammad since there was no jihad
Muhammad & wives • There were a couple raids but no bloodshed • Muhammad takes wives 4 & 5, widows of those killed • He was smitten by his beautiful daughter-in-law, the wife of his adopted son Zaid. He divorced her and after a revelation from Allah that it was OK, Muhammad married her. Allah said that an adopted son is not a real son; name him after his father.
Muhammad’s wives • Muhammad saw the danger of seeing another man’s wife, and imposed a veil on all his wives. No man would see them – just the woman’s relatives • His own wives were mothers of all and not to remarry after his death
Jewish tribe #3 • Went to Quraysh to join in fighting Muhamamed. They asked the Jews whose religion was better – Muhammad or the Quraysh. The Jews answered the Quraysh. • Muhammad was advised to dig a ditch to protect against the invasion
The battle of the trench • The battle never really took place. Muhammad was able to find someone to sow discord between the Arab Meccans and Jewish allies, and they disbursed • Later two of his men tried to kill Abu Safyan, and did not succeed, but killed three and captured one
The last Jews of Medina • Muhammad saw a vision of Gabriel, who ordered fighting the Jews • He put them to a siege 25 days, and then they surrendered. • He beheaded 800 Jews, took their wives and children and all property, sold some wives for sex slaves, and took one Jewish woman as his own wife after killing her husband family
Arabs kill Abu Rafi • One Arab tribe ingratiated themselves by offering to kill the Jew who organized the fight at the battle of the trench, Abu Rafi • Five men went and succeeded
Continued battles • There were several other battles, and he conquered the Mustaliq tribe. There was also squabbling between the Immigrants and the helpers. Muhammad married one wife of the captured tribe – wife #7
Aisha left behind inadvertently • She was found by a young warrior and returned to Medina • Many talked about a relationship between the two • Allah showed that there must be 4 witnesses for adultery to occur – thus none occurred
Treaty of Al Hudaybiya • After a lot of debating, the Meccans signed a treaty with Muhammad, who viewed the treaty as a victory for Islam. • Ultimately, treaty was for 10 years – and any treaty is only for 10 years, and only to allow the Muslims a chance to regroup and fight more effectively
Dhimmis • They prepared to attack Khaybar. Their king Marhab fought Amir, who killed himself. Ali fought and killed Marhab • The Muslims captured a fort at a time; he took captive Safiyah, a beautiful Jew and freed her as a marriage present. • 1800 men divided the spoil; Muhammad got 20%. At nearby Fadat, they surrenderd without a fight and Muhammad received everything
Dhimmi • Muhammad allowed Jews to live, but received 50% of their profits and humiliated them • They refused to pay some blood money to Muhammad. He later asked that no Jews or Christians be allowed in Arabia on his deathbed. Muslims still try to do this today
Loss at Muta • They attacked Muta, but found a large number of professional Christian warriors there, who destroyed them.
Defeating Mecca • Abu Sufyan, a chief opponent, came to see Muhammad’s army of 10, 000. He was almost killed, but offered a chance to submit to Islam or die. He submitted, and told those who stayed home or in the Ka’aba that they would not be killed. Only 13 Meccans resisted, and Muhammad became ruler. He took his 10 th wife.
Mecca made holy • Muhammad made Mecca a holy city, without bloodshed except at the order of Muhammad. • He entered the Ka’aba and broke the idols there after riding 7 times around it and touching the black stone 7 times. • One lady submitted to Islam and was forgiven by touching his hand
Khalid • Khalid deceived men promising not to kill them. When they surrendered, he bound and killed them; a woman was also killed • Muhammad asked forgiveness of Allah, and paid blood money
l Battle of Hunain • There was intense fighting and the Muslims drew back. Muhammad and Abu Bakr rallied the troops and turned the tide of battle. • Kab, a poet against Muhammad, became a Muslim and was not killed
l Battle of Hunain • There was big trouble when Mary, a Coptic slave, gave Muhammad a son, and when one wife was away, he brought her into his harem instead of visiting her apart. The other wives rebelled, Muhammad stayed away from them for a month, and then there was something about this episode against the wives in the Qur’an. Abraham died at 16 months of age
Battle of Tabuk • The trip was long in the heat of the summer. A number grumbled and dropped out • After arrival, they agreed to the poll tax so there was no battle • Khalid killed a Christian brother of the ruler and captured the ruler for ransom • Returning, he shunned 3 men for 50 days, then forgave them
Thaqif submits • The first man from there submitted, but was killed on his return and announcement. But later the rest of the people submitted • The Qur’an now states that jihad is the normal state of affairs. But leave some behind so that the proper teaching is given
Abu Bakr leads a pilgrimage • The treaty was only good for 4 sacred months; then jihad with compulsion to convert • No Kafirs could come to Mecca. The loss of income would come from jihad and the poll tax. Those who resisted to fight were hypocrites • Now several tribes submitted. Muhammad sent out people to collect the zakat.
Last pilgrimage • Final address: no usury; no blood revenge from before Islam; use the lunar calendar • Men had rights over a woman; they were not to commit adultery or act sexually toward others. • Christians and Jews are dhimmi and must pay jizya and accept humiliation
Muhammad and world leaders • Muhammad sent notes to several world leaders – one in Rome and Ethiopia said that he was a true prophet expected by Christians • The Persian king ripped the paper in pieces
Summary of fighting • Over 9 years – Muhammad participated in 27 raids – There were 38 other expeditions and battles – There were also assassinations and executions • Average – one battle / 7 weeks over 9 years • After this = still more raids and killings listed in the Sunna, wives traded, etc.
Muhammad dies • He became sick and weak suddenly, and died within a short time in the room of Aisha. He was buried beneath his bed • One of his last words was – only one religion must be in Arabia
The character of Muhammad • He was generous and open to all friends but when he became a prophet, he was gentle with Muslims and brutal with those who were not. • He participated in all levels of slavery and approved of it, including sex with slaves
Who would follow? • They felt that there should be just one leader, not one for helpers and one for immigrants • He must be from the Quraysh, the tribe superior to all others in the world • Abu Bakr was chosen. Many wanted to leave Islam, but he killed all who wanted to leave as apostates. He was successful for 4 years, against Iraq
Umar, chosen to follow by Abu Bakr • Conquered Egypt, Syria and Persia • Set up documents for dhimmi status • He stopped dividing the spoils of war and arranged state payment & a standing army • Giant of a man, beat his own son to death for drunkenness. Feared, not loved. Assassinated by a slave – former Persian general
Uthman • Chosen by 6 men picked by Umar • Unpopular as he consolidated the government and there was less booty and income • He had assembled the Qur’an • He was assassinated by Muslims and his body dumped and partially eaten by dogs
Ali • There was resistance from Muslims. He killed some. Discontent from Aisha; when he won, she was placed under house arrest. When Aisha had been accused of infidelity years before, Ali had told Muhammad he could get better wives • Then the governor of Syria demanded some of Uthman’s assassins to be turned over for revenge; Ali refused. They made a peace agreement, but many Muslims left Ali, and he was then assassinated
Governor of Syria ruled • He ruled successfully, but when his son became caliph, the factions resumed. He demanded homage; resistance arose, and Al Husayn, Ali’s son, was killed, still mourned by Shi’a Muslims
Summary after Muhammad • • • Abu Bakr slaughtered thousands of apostates Umar assassinated by a slave he had captured Uthman assassinated by Muslims Ali – assassinated by Muslims Al Husayn – killed by Muslims in battle
Deaths by jihad • • • Africans = 120 million Christians – 60 million Jews – a few thousand Hindus = 80 million Buddhists – 10 million Total: approximately 270 million