Investments in Other Corporations Appendix D 2009 The

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Investments in Other Corporations Appendix D © 2009 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Investments in Other Corporations Appendix D © 2009 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Why Do Companies Invest? 1. Companies transfer excess cash into investments to produce higher

Why Do Companies Invest? 1. Companies transfer excess cash into investments to produce higher income. Some companies are set up to produce income from investments. 2. Companies us investments to even out seasonal fluctuations in cash. Such investments in securities are referred to as passive investment. 3. Some companies invest with the purpose of influencing, but not controlling the company’s policies and activities. 4. Managers may want to control another company, either by purchasing it directly or by becoming a majority shareholder. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 2

Passive Investments in Debt and Equity Securities Passive investments are made to earn a

Passive Investments in Debt and Equity Securities Passive investments are made to earn a high rate of return on funds that may be needed in the future. This category includes debt securities (bonds and notes) and equity securities (stock). Passive Equity Investments Presumed to be passive if the investing company owns less than 20% of the other company’s outstanding voting shares. Reporting Using Market Value Method Passive Debt Investments in debt securities are always considered to be passive. No Hold to Maturity? Yes Reporting at Amortized Cost

Investments in Stock for Significant Influence Active investments are those in which a company

Investments in Stock for Significant Influence Active investments are those in which a company owns enough stock in another business to influence or control that business. Significant influence is presumed to exist if the investing company owns from 20 to 50% of the outstanding voting shares. The equity method is used to measure and report this type of active investment. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 4

Investments in Stock for Control is the ability to determine the operating and financial

Investments in Stock for Control is the ability to determine the operating and financial policies of another company through ownership of its voting stock. For all practical purposes, control is presumed when the investing company owns more that 50% of the outstanding voting stock. These investments are accounted for by combining the two companies using the consolidated statement method. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 5

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method Assume that on October 1, 2010,

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method Assume that on October 1, 2010, Washington Post paid the par value of $100, 000 for 8% bonds due to mature on October 1, 2015. The 8% interest is paid each September 30 th. Management plans to hold the bonds for five years, until they mature. Investments Held-to-Maturity (+A) Cash (-A) Debit Credit 100, 000, 000 ASSETS Cash Investments – Held-to-Maturity (-A) = LIABILITIES + -100, 000 +100, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY Slide 6

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On December 31, 2010, Washington Post

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On December 31, 2010, Washington Post will prepare an adjusting entry to accrue interest for three months ($100, 000 × 8% × 3/12). Interest Receivable (+A) Interest Revenue (+R, +OE) ASSETS Interest Receivable Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Debit 2, 000 Credit 2, 000 = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY +2, 000 Interest Revenue +2, 000 Slide 7

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On September 30, 2011, Washington Post

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On September 30, 2011, Washington Post will receive a full year of interest. Revenue recognized in 2011 is ($100, 000 × 8% × 9/12). Cash (+A) Interest Revenue (+R, +OE) Interest Receivable (-A) ASSETS Cash Interest Receivable Credit 6, 000 2, 000 = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY +8, 000 Interest Revenue +6, 000 -2, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Debit 8, 000 Slide 8

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On October 1, 2015, Washington Post

Debt Investments Held to Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On October 1, 2015, Washington Post will receive the principal amount of the investment as the bonds mature. Debit Credit Cash (+A) 100, 000 Investment Held-to-Maturity (-A) 100, 000 ASSETS Cash Investment Held-to-Maturity = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY +100, 000 -100, 000 If the bond investment were sold before maturity, any difference between market value and book value would be reported as a gain or loss on sale. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 9

Securities Available for Sale: Market Value Method Classified Passive Investments Trading Securities Trading securities

Securities Available for Sale: Market Value Method Classified Passive Investments Trading Securities Trading securities are traded actively, with the objective of generating short-term profits on changes in the securities price. They are classified as current assets on the balance sheet. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Securities Available for Sale Most companies do not actively trade the securities of other companies. They invest to earn a return on funds they may need in the near future. These securities may be classified as either current assets or noncurrent assets depending on the intent of management to sell them within one year. Slide 10

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale On January 2, 2010, Washington Post purchased

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale On January 2, 2010, Washington Post purchased 1, 000 shares of Internet Financial News (IFN) common stock for $60 per share. The 1, 000 shares represents 10% of the outstanding shares. These securities are classified by management as available for sale and are considered a passive investment. Securities Available for Sale (+A) Cash (-A) Debit 60, 000, 000 ASSETS Cash Securities Available for Sale Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY -60, 000 +60, 000 Slide 11

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Investments in equity securities earn a return

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Investments in equity securities earn a return fro two sources: (1) increase in the market price and (2) dividend income. On December 15, 2010, Washington Post received a $1 per share cash dividend from IFN. Cash (+A) 1, 000 shares × $1 per share Investment Income (+R, +OE) Debit 1, 000, 000 ASSETS Cash Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY +1, 000 Investment Income +1, 000 Slide 12

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale At the end of the accounting period,

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale At the end of the accounting period, passive investments are reported on the balance sheet at their market value. On December 31, 2010, IFN stock was trading at $58 per share in the open market. Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investment (-OE) Market Value Allowance (-A) Debit 2, 000, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit Slide 13

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Market Value Allowance 12/31/09 0 AJE 2,

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Market Value Allowance 12/31/09 0 AJE 2, 000 12/31/10 2, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 14

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Now let’s assume that Washington Post held

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Now let’s assume that Washington Post held the IFN securities through the year 2011. At the end of 2011, the stock had a market value of $61 per share. On December 31, 2011, we must make an adjusting entry to state the investment at market value. December 31, 2011 Shares Market value 1, 000 Cost 1, 000 Balance Needed in Allowance Current Balance in Allowance Amount of Adjusting Entry Per Share Total $ 61, 000 $ 60 60, 000 $ 1, 000 (2, 000) $ 3, 000 Market Value Allowance (+A) Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investment (+OE) Debit 3, 000, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit Slide 15

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Market Value Allowance AJE 3, 000 12/31/11

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Market Value Allowance AJE 3, 000 12/31/11 1, 000 12/31/09 0 AJE 2, 000 12/31/10 2, 000 Washington Post Partial Balance Sheet December 31, 2011 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Assets Investment in marketable securities Market value allowance Net investment Stockholders' Equity Other comprehensive income Unrealized gain on investments $ 60, 000 1, 000 $ 61, 000 $ 1, 000 Slide 16

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Now let’s assume that on March 17,

Recording and Reporting Securities Available for Sale Now let’s assume that on March 17, 2012, Washington Post sold all of its investment in IFN for $64 per share. Cash (+A) Securities Available for Sale (-A) Gain on Sale of Investment (+R, +OE) Debit 64, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit 60, 000 4, 000 Slide 17

Comparing Available-For-Sale and Trading Securities The impact of unrealized holding gains or losses on

Comparing Available-For-Sale and Trading Securities The impact of unrealized holding gains or losses on the financial statements depends on whether an investment is a trading security or a security available for sale. Available-for-Sale Securities The unrealized gain (loss) account is reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity, under Other Comprehensive Income. It is not reported on the income statement. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Trading Securities The unrealized gain (loss) is included in each period’s income statement. Holding gains increase income and holding losses decrease net income. The unrealized gain (loss) account is closed to retained earnings at the end of the period. Slide 18

Accounting for Influential Investments Investor Ownership of Investee Shares Outstanding Cost or Market Value

Accounting for Influential Investments Investor Ownership of Investee Shares Outstanding Cost or Market Value Method { 0% Equity Method 20% Consolidated Financial Statements 50% 100% In some cases, influence or control may exist with less than 20% ownership. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 19

Accounting for Influential Investments Investor Ownership of Investee Shares Outstanding Cost or Market Value

Accounting for Influential Investments Investor Ownership of Investee Shares Outstanding Cost or Market Value Method { 0% Equity Method 20% Consolidated Financial Statements 50% 100% Significant influence is generally assumed with 20% to 50% ownership. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 20

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method Original investment is recorded at cost. The investment

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method Original investment is recorded at cost. The investment account is increased by a proportionate share of investee’s net income, or decreased by proportionate share of investee’s net loss. The investment account is decreased by dividends declared for the period. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 21

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method In 2010, Washington Post purchased 4, 000 shares

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method In 2010, Washington Post purchased 4, 000 shares of the outstanding voting stock of Internet Financial News (IFN) for $60 per share. Washington Post purchased 40% of the voting stock of IFN and was presumed to have significant influence over the investee. Investment in Affiliates (+A) Cash (-A) Debit 240, 000, 000 ASSETS Cash Investment in Affiliates = LIABILITIES + -240, 000 +240, 000 Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Credit STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY Slide 22

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method During 2010, IFN reported net income of $50,

Recording Investments Under the Equity Method During 2010, IFN reported net income of $50, 000. Washington Post’s share of net income is $20, 000 (40% × $50, 000). The journal entry is: Debit Credit Investment in Affiliates (+A) 20, 000 Equity in Investee Earnings (+R, +OE) 20, 000 ASSETS Investment in Affiliates Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY +20, 000 Equity in Earnings +20, 000 Slide 23

Investments with Controlling Interests: Consolidated Statements Required when investor’s ownership exceeds 50% of investee.

Investments with Controlling Interests: Consolidated Statements Required when investor’s ownership exceeds 50% of investee. 1. Vertical integration. One company acquires another company that operates on a different level in the distribution channel. 2. Horizontal growth. Companies operate on the same level of the distribution channel. 3. Synergy. Two companies operating together may be more profitable than two companies operating separately. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 24

What are Consolidated Statements? When one company purchases all the assets and liabilities of

What are Consolidated Statements? When one company purchases all the assets and liabilities of another company and the acquired company goes out of existence, the acquisition is called a merger. When the acquired company remains in business, the company that gains control over it by acquiring all or a majority of the voting stock is called the parent company. The other company is called a subsidiary company. When one company acquires another, results of their operations must be reported together, in consolidated statements. Consolidated financial statements combine the operations of two or more companies into a single set of statements usually identified by the term “consolidated” in the statement title. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Slide 25

End of Appendix D © 2009 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc.

End of Appendix D © 2009 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc.