- Slides: 24
Introductory Psychology: Developmental Psychology AP PSYCHOLOGY: UNIT III Topic: Adolescence
The Nature of Adolescence �A “Carefree Time” versus G. Stanley Hall’s “Storm and Stress” �Trends today? How is your adolescence different than my adolescence? How is your adolescence different than your parents adolescence? �Cultural differences?
Adolescence: Physical Development PART ONE
Adolescence: Physical Development �Characteristics of the Teenage Brain Volume of white matter increases; significant growth of myelin sheath � Leads to enhanced conductivity & connectivity in the brain Volume of gray matter decreases; synaptic pruning � Elimination of less-active synapses Myelination & pruning are most pronounced in the frontal lobe/prefrontal cortex � “Executive control center” � Frontal lobe development lags behind the limbic system; not thought to be complete until the mid-20 s
Adolescence: Physical Development �Sexual Development Growth spurt � Girls (age 10); boys (age 12) � Puberty generally occurs (on average) two years after the initial growth spurt Pubescence � The two-year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical & sexual maturity take place � Secondary sex characteristics begin to develop during this period
Adolescence: Physical Development �Puberty The onset of sexual maturation; marks the beginning of adolescence; lasts approximately 5 years Primary sex characteristics reach full maturity during this period � Menarche & Spermarche �Generational differences in puberty?
Adolescence: Physical Development �The impact of puberty, especially early developers? �Adolescent sexual activity Approximately ¾ of males and ½ females (between 15 and 19) have engaged in sex Average: 16 and 17 for males & females respectively �Teenage pregnancy Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 years Highest in U. S. of all industrialized nations
Adolescence: Cognitive Development PART TWO
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Piaget’s Stage Theory Formal Operational � Characteristics of Stage Due to the continuing maturation of the frontal lobes, abstract and hypothetical thinking become possible ***Not all adolescents use their formal operational thought processes equally well…
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Characteristics of Adolescent Thought Introspection Hypocrisy Personal Fable (form of egocentrism) � Type of thought common to most adolescents � The belief that they (+ their experiences) are unique and therefore, they are protected from harm/invulnerable “You just don’t understand me, I’m different from you!” “It can’t happen to me, I’m special!”
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Characteristics of Adolescent Thought Imaginary Audience (form of egocentrism) � Type of thought common to most adolescents � The belief that other people are just as concerned about their thoughts & characteristics as they themselves are
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg, 1973) As with all developmental stage theories, the sequence is unvarying � Preconventional � Conventional � Postconventional Adolescents & adults can be found in all 3 levels
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Preconventional Typical of very young children Focused on self-interest; consequences determine morality Obey rules to: (1) avoid punishment or (2) gain concrete awards EXAMPLE �A child who steals a toy from another child & DOES NOT get caught does not see that action as wrong (A: Punishment-Avoidance & Obedience) (B: Exchange of Favors)
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Conventional Typical of older children, adolescents & most adults Conformity is right; nonconformity is wrong One upholds the law simply because it’s the law EXAMPLE �A child criticizes his or her parent for speeding because speeding is against the law (C: Good Boy/Good Girl) (D: Law and Order)
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Postconventional (About 20% of the adult population) Moral principles determined by the individual; may disagree with societal norms Actions are judged “right” because they come from self-defined, basic ethical principles EXAMPLE �A reporter who wrote a controversial story goes to jail rather than reveal the source’s identity (E: Social Contract) (F: Universal Ethical Principle)
Adolescence: Cognitive Development �Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Stage Theory Carole Gilligan (1982) Male-oriented; used only males in his study; proposed that men & women have different perspectives on morality � Men: actions that lead to a fair or just end � Women: actions that are nonviolent & hurt the fewest people Biased against collectivist societies such as China and India Kohlberg’s methods?
Adolescence: Psychosocial Development PART THREE
Adolescence: Psychosocial Development �Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Theory Identity versus Role Confusion (Stage 5) � The premier challenge of adolescence is the struggle to form a clear sense of identity Stable concept of oneself as a unique individual Adoption of values that provide a sense of direction • “Who am I? ” • “Where am I going in life? ” � Recognized that this struggle often extends beyond adolescence
CRISIS Present COMMITTMENT Absent Present Absent Identity Achievement Identity Foreclosure Successful achievement of a sense of identity Unquestioning adoption of parental or societal values Identity Moratorium Identity Diffusion Active struggling for a sense of identity Absence of struggle for identity, with no obvious concern about it James Marcia: Identity Statuses
Adolescence: Psychosocial Development �Jeffrey Arnett, Emerging Adulthood A new transitional period? � Ages 18 -25; attributed to a variety of demographic trends Length of education; delay of parenthood; increasing barriers to financial independence Characteristics � Exploration and instability � A feeling of “in-betweenness” � “Age of possibilities” � (Identity formation well into young-adulthood)