- Slides: 52
Introduction to Poetry “In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the ear as the meaning is to the mind. ” -- Marianne Moore
Did you know? ? ? The Human Brain is: • Divided into 2 parts • Each half has its own function Left Brain: Logic Reality Literal Right Brain: Creativity Emotions Figurative
To clarify. . . When you look at big puffy clouds. . . Your right brain tells you, “Hey! That one looks like a bunny. ” While your left brain tells you. . . It’s a cloud, Stupid!
So, which half do you use when studying poetry? Here a few hints: Poetry requires creativity Poetry requires emotion Poetry requires artistic quality Poetry requires logic
Poet VS. Speaker Poet Writer of the poem Speaker Narrator of the poem Usually not the same person
Traditional VS Organic Follows specific rules Regular pattern of rhyme, rhythm, meter Forms: Epic, ode, ballad, sonnet, haiku, limerick No rules No regular pattern of rhythm, meter, & may/may not have rhyme Forms free verse, concrete poetry
Elements of Poetry Rhythm Sound Imagery Form Recognizing devices in a poem keeps the left brain busy.
The beat in poetry o Read out loud to hear it o “Sing-song” quality (like in nursery rhymes) o creates mood o Can match subject of poem Used o. Most 7 types Less Common • Iambic • Anapestic • Trochaic • Dactylic • Monosyllabic • Spondaic • Accentual
Rhythm v stressed & unstressed syllables in a line of poetry vone syllable is pronounced stronger &one syllable is softer Iambic: Anapestic: Trochaic: Dactylic: te TUM unstressed te te TUM te te
Examples / Iamb U / behold, amuse, arise, awake, return, destroy, inspire Anapest U U Trochee / understand, interrupt, comprehend, contradict, "get a life" U happy, hammer, nugget, double, injure, roses, beat it, dental, dinner, chosen, planet, slacker, doctor Dactyl / U U strawberry, carefully, merrily, mannequin, tenderly, prominent, bitterly, notable, horrible
§ measured in “FEET” § length of a line in poetry (measured by how many feet are in it) § depends on the rhythm used § 1 foot = 1 set of rhythm (set of stressed & unstressed syllables) § Example: Iambic/Trochaic: 1 foot of poetry has 2 syllables Anapestic/Dactylic: 1 foot of poetry has 3 syllables
Types of Poetic Measurements… 1: Monometer 5: Pentameter 2: Dimeter 6: Hexameter 3: Trimeter 7: Heptameter 4: Tetrameter 8: Octameter *there is rarely more than 8 feet*
She Walks in Beauty I. She walks in beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; And all that’s best of dark and bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes: Thus mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to gaudy day denies. ˘ ΄ ˘ ΄ Reading this poem out loud makes the rhythm evident. Which syllables are more pronounced? Which are naturally softer? II. One shade the more, one ray the less, Count the syllables in Had half impaired the nameless grace each line to determine Which waves in every raven tress, the meter. Or softly lightens o’er her face; Where thoughts serenely sweet express, How pure, how dear their dwelling-place. III. And on that cheek, and o’er that brow, Examination of this poem So soft, so calm, yet eloquent, reveals that it would be The smiles that win, the tints that glow, considered iambic tetrameter. But tell of days in goodness spent, A mind at peace with all below, A heart whose love is innocent!
Now try this one: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=b. F 1 Qzjme. Yp. Y Count the syllables. 2. Divide by two. (Remember these groups of two are called feet. ) 3. Label the meter. 4. Listen carefully to the rhythm. Is it a rising rhythm or a falling rhythm? 1.
Sound Devices in Poetry poems are meant to be heard Major Sound Devices 1. 2. 3. 4. Rhyme Repetition Alliteration Onomatopoeia
My Beard by Shel Silverstein Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. o repetition of sounds My beard grows to my toes, I never wears no clothes, I wraps my hair Around my bare, And down the road I goes. o words end with the same sound Example: (Hat, cat, bat, splat, chat) o don’t have to be spelled same way Example: (Cloud & allowed) o most common sound device in poetry o. Strengthens form-identify end of line o. Draws attention to words & connects them in reader’s mind
How to Rhyme… Different rhyming patterns: AABB – lines 1 & 2 rhyme and lines 3 & 4 rhyme q ABAB – lines 1 & 3 rhyme and lines 2 & 4 rhyme q ABBA – lines 1 & 4 rhyme and lines 2 & 3 rhyme q ABCB – lines 2 & 4 rhyme and lines 1 & 3 do not rhyme q First Snow makes whiteness where it falls. The bushes look like popcorn balls. And places where I always play, Look like somewhere else today. By Marie Louise Allen Oodles of Noodles I love noodles. Give me oodles. Make a mound up to the sun. Noodles are my favorite foodles. I eat noodles by the ton. By Lucia and James L. Hymes, Jr.
Rhyme The Alligator The alligator chased his tail Which hit him in the snout; He nibbled, gobbled, swallowed it, And turned right inside-out. by Mary Macdonald From “Bliss” Let me fetch sticks, Let me fetch stones, Throw me your bones, Teach me your tricks. By Eleanor Farjeon
Words, phrases, or lines o Creates a pattern o Increases rhythm o Strengthens feelings, ideas, and mood o
Valued Treasue Time to spend; by Chris R. Carey Time will eventually time to mend. show us the truth. Time to hate; Time is a mystery; time to wait. time is a measure. Time is the essence; Time for us is time is the key. valued treasure. Time will tell us Time to spend; what we will be. time to mend. Time is the enemy; Time to cry. . . time is the proof. Time to die. So, which is the repeated key word or phrase?
Valued Treasue by Chris R. Carey Time to spend; Time will eventually time to mend. show us the truth. Time to hate; Time is a mystery; time to wait. time is a measure. Time is the essence; Time for us is time is the key. valued treasure. Time will tell us Time to spend; what we will be. time to mend. Time is the enemy; Time to cry. . . time is the proof. Time to die.
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at the end of a stanza. • entire stanza is repeated throughout a poem • like a chorus of a song
Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou Pretty women wonder where my secret lies. I’m not cute or built to suit a fashion model’s size But when I start to tell them, They think I’m telling lies. I say, It’s in the reach of my arms, The span of my hips, The stride of my step, The curl of my lips. I’m a woman Remember this Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, That’s me.
I walk into a room Just as cool as you please, And to a man, The fellows stand or Fall down on their knees. Then they swarm around me, A hive of honey bees. I say, It’s the fire in my eyes, And the flash of my teeth, The swing of my waist, And the joy in my feet. I’m a woman Look familiar? Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, That’s me. Men themselves have wondered What they see in me. They try so much But they can’t touch My inner mystery. When I try to show them, They say they still can’t see. I say, It’s in the arch of my back, The sun of my smile, . . . The grace of my style. I’m a woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, That is refrain. That’s me.
The repetition of the initial • also called “tongue-twisters” letter or sound in two or st • repetition ofmore 1 words consonant sound in a line. in words Ex. “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. ” This Tooth I jiggled it jaggled it jerked it. I pushed and pulled and poked it. But – As soon as I stopped, And left it alone This tooth came out On its very own! by Lee Bennett Hopkins The snake slithered silently along the sunny sidewalk.
Let’s see what this looks like in a poem we She Walks in Beauty I. are familiar She walks in beauty, like the night with. Of cloudless climes and starry skies; Alliteration Notice, these examples use the beginning sounds of words only twice in a line, but by definition, that’s all you need. Alliteration And all that’s best of dark and bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes: Thus mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to gaudy day denies.
Words that spell out sounds; words that sound like what o Words that sound like what they actually stand for they mean. o Creates auditory imagery o. Dogs go “ruff, ” cats go “purr, ” thunder “booms, ” rain “drips, ” and clocks go “tick-tock” More examples: growl, hiss, pop, boom, crack, ptthhhbbb.
Let’s see what this looks like in a poem we are not so familiar with yet. Onomatopoeia Noise Day by Shel Silverstein Let’s have one day for girls and boyses When you can make the grandest noises. Screech, scream, holler, and yell – Buzz a buzzer, clang a bell, Sneeze – hiccup – whistle – shout, Laugh until your lungs wear out, Several other words not highlighted could also be considered as onomatopoeia. Can you find any? Toot a whistle, kick a can, Bang a spoon against a pan, Sing, yodel, bellow, hum, Blow a horn, beat a drum, Rattle a window, slam a door, Scrape a rake across the floor. .
More Sound Devices üAssonance – üConsonance – repetition of vowels in words consonants at the end of words that don’t end Ex. (sharp, trap) with same üCacophony – harsh consonant mixture of sounds Ex. (deep, deer) Ex. (alarm bells, traffic)
n n Words/descriptions that create pictures/images in reader’s mind appeals to 5 senses: smell, sight, hearing, taste & touch details about smells, sounds, colors, taste, textures create strong (vivid) images figures of speech also create vivid images Five Senses Example: The warm, buttery biscuit melted on my tongue.
Figurative Language creates images, “paints pictures, ” in your mind üSimiles üMetaphors üHyperbole üPersonification
compares 2 things using creates vivid images “like” or “as” Examples: Joe is as hungry as a bear. In the morning, Rae is like an angry lion. Ask: 1. What two things are being compared? 2. How are they similar? The runner streaked like a cheetah.
Let’s see what this looks like in a poem. Flint An emerald is as green as grass, Simile A ruby red as blood; Simile A sapphire shines as blue as Simile heaven; A flint lies in the mud. A diamond is a brilliant stone, To catch the world’s desire; An opal holds a fiery spark; But a flint holds fire. By Christina Rosetti
compares 2 things without “like” or “as” the thing being compared “is” the thing it is being compared to gives qualities of one thing to something completely different an entire poem can be a metaphor for something little metaphors can be found throughout a poem Examples: Lenny is a snake. Ginny is a mouse when it comes to standing up for herself. The winter wind is a wolf howling at the door. Ask: 1. What two things are being compared? 2. How are they similar?
The Night is a Big Black Cat The Night is a big black cat Metaphor The moon is her topaz eye, Metaphor The stars are the mice she hunts at night, In the field of the sultry sky. By G. Orr Clark
An exaggeration for emphasis Examples: I may sweat to death. The blood bank needs a river of blood.
gives human qualities & feelings to inanimate objects (like animals, ideas, objects) Example: I could not find the book; it walked away. The clock stared at me in the darkness. From “Mister Sun” Mister Sun Wakes up at dawn, Puts his golden Slippers on, Climbs the summer Sky at noon, Trading places With the moon. by J. Patrick Lewis The moon smiled down at me.
Word, image, or color representing something other than what is literally shown Examples: Dark/black images often symbolize death. Light/white images often symbolize life.
§ refers to another piece of literature, history, famous person, song, movie, character, etc. § 3 most common types refer to: mythology, Shakespeare’s writings, the Bible Example: “She hath Dian’s wit” (from Romeo and Juliet). This is an allusion to Roman mythology & the goddess Diana.
specific, detailed, descriptive words/phrases a poet chooses to use High/formal: technical words/SAT words Low/informal: slang Always consider connotation (the feelings/associations) a word has Positive , Negative , Neutral = Example: 1. Rock formation: stone, boulder, outcropping, pile of rocks, cairn, mound, "anomalous geological feature“ 2. Skinny: fit, slender, boney
FORMS OF POETRY many forms of poetry including the: Couplet Tercet Cinquain Haiku Lyric Narrative Free Verse
poem/stanza Poem/stanza written in 3 lines written in 2 lines Usually rhymes Lines 1 & 2 rhyme; Usually rhymes or lines 1 & 3 rhyme; or all 3 lines rhyme. The Jellyfish Winter Moon Who wants my jellyfish? How thin and sharp is the moon tonight! I’m not sellyfish! How thin and sharp and ghostly white By Ogden Nash Is the slim curved crook of the moon tonight! By Langston Hughes
Poem/stanza with 4 lines most common form of stanza in poetry Usually rhymes Uses variety of rhyming patterns The Lizard poem with 5 lines Don’t rhyme five lines with 22 syllables: Line 1 – 2 syllables Line 2 – 4 syllables Line 3 – 6 syllables Line 4 – 8 syllables Line 5 – 2 syllables Oh, cat The lizard is a timid thing are you grinning That cannot dance or fly or sing; curled in the window seat He hunts for bugs beneath the floor as sun warms you this December And longs to be a dinosaur. morning? By John Gardner By Paul B. Janezco
Japanese poem 3 lines of 5, 7, 5 syllables (17 syllables) Don’t rhyme About something in nature/the seasons Captures moment in time Little frog among rain-shaken leaves, are you, too, splashed with fresh, green paint? by Gaki
19 Villanelle line poem 2 repeating rhymes 2 repeating refrains 5 tercets ends with quartet 1 st & 3 rd lines of opening tercet repeat alternately in last lines of other stanzas refrain is the two concluding lines of last stanza
“Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” Dylan Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they And you, my father, there on the sad height, Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Lyric Short, songlike poems express thoughts & feelings Tell story don’t tell a story uses poetic addresses reader directly elements Sonnets, Includes Odes (celebrate/honor), character, setting, Elegies (funeral, loss, death) conflict, plot Dramatic monologue Epics, ballads, idylls
Sonnet Different types Shakespearean Easiest rhyme scheme 3 quatrains alternating rhyme & a couplet: abab cdcd efef gg
Sonnet 18 - Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Where is the turn in rhyme?
"The Broken-Legg'd Man" by John Mackey Shaw I saw the other day when I went shopping in the store A man I hadn't ever, ever seen in there before, A man whose leg was broken and who leaned upon a crutch. I asked him very kindly if it hurt him very much. "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. I ran around behind him for I thought that I would see The broken leg all bandaged up and bent back at the knee; But I didn't see the leg at all, there wasn't any there, So I asked him very kindly if he had it hid somewhere. "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. "Then where, " I asked him, "is it? Did a tiger bite it off? Or did you get your foot wet when you had a nasty cough? Did someone jump down on your leg when it was very new? Or did you simply cut it off because you wanted to? " "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. "What was it then? " I asked him, and this is what he said: "I crossed a busy crossing when the traffic light was red; A big black car came whizzing by and knocked me off my feet. " "Of course you looked both ways, " I said, "before you crossed the street. " "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. "They rushed me to the hospital right quickly, "he went on, "And when I woke in nice white sheets I saw my leg was gone; That's why you see me walking now on nothing but a crutch. " "I'm glad, " said I, "you told me, and I thank you very much!" "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man.
No rules Almost anything goes. Uses devices Doesn’t follow traditional conventions: punctuation, capitalization, rhyme scheme, rhythm and meter Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then, moves on. No Rhyme No Rhythm No Meter This is free verse.
Poetry Outloud National Champion 2009 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=6 SJe. Gj. Azvs 8 An Evening of Poetry, Music and the Written Word at the White House, President and First Lady Obama http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. Ufekq. AJHe. I James Earl Jones reciting from Othello by Shakespeare http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=DJyb. A 1 emr_ g&feature=Series. Play. List&p=1 ECEA 36 D 759093 A 1 Billy Collins, “The Dead” with animation http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=iu. TNd. Hadwbk Poetry should be read aloud!