Introduction to MAXI Naoki Isobe 1 and MAXI

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Introduction to MAXI Naoki Isobe 1 and MAXI Team 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

Introduction to MAXI Naoki Isobe 1 and MAXI Team 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1 RIKEN, 2 JAXA, 3 Osaka Univ. , 4 Tokoy Tech. Univ. , 5 Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 6 Nihon Uni. MAXI team

X-ray Sources l There are various classes of variable X-ray objects in the universe.

X-ray Sources l There are various classes of variable X-ray objects in the universe. Jet Super massive BH Black hole Accretion disk Companion star Compact objects (Black holes, Neutron stars) l Active galactic nucleus (AGN) Continuous monitor of their X-ray luminosities provides important information on their nature. MAXI is the ideal instrument !!

Monitor of All sky X-ray Image; MAXI l l l All-sky X-ray monitor on

Monitor of All sky X-ray Image; MAXI l l l All-sky X-ray monitor on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the international space station (ISS). Launch : 2008 by Space Shuttle. Mission life : at least 2 years. Scan of all over the sky in every 96 minutes. Two kinds of X-ray instruments; Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) JEM ISS SSC MAXI GSC

A concept of slit camera Zenith field of view X-ray source 1 X-ray source

A concept of slit camera Zenith field of view X-ray source 1 X-ray source 2 Celestial sphere Scan Slit Collimator Position sensitive detector A combination of position sensitive detector, collimator and slit Narrow rectangular field of view on the sky Forward field of view MAXI has two identical field of view, toward forward and zenith direction.

Gas Slit Camera (GSC) A unit of GSC l l l 3 units forward

Gas Slit Camera (GSC) A unit of GSC l l l 3 units forward and 3 units for zenith direction Detector : Proportional counter Xe gas (1. 4 atm) Carbon anodes (10 mm) Be entrance (100 mm) Large field of view : 1. 5 x 160° Large Effective area : 5350 cm 2 High Sensitivity : 1 m. Crab / day Slit Be window (A 4 paper size) Proportional counter Slit and collimator

Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) A unit of SSC (shown without slit and collimators) One

Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) A unit of SSC (shown without slit and collimators) One unit forward and one unit for zenith direction l Detector : CCD chip l Field of view : 1. 5 x 90° l Effective area : 200 cm 2 l Good Energy resolution : ~ 150 e. V (@ Mn Ka line) ⇒ Map of emission lines l 24 mm CCD chip (Hamamatsu Photonics)

Targets of MAXI l Flux [m. Cab] l l 1 orbit (96 min) 1

Targets of MAXI l Flux [m. Cab] l l 1 orbit (96 min) 1 day 1 week Previous all sky monitors l l Distance [ly] Extragalactic sources (AGNs, Clusters) l l Dynamic catalog of more than 1000 X-ray sources Long term monitoring of AGNs Distribution of distant AGNs, by measuring Xray backgrounds Long term monitoring of flaring stars Alerting X-ray transients Gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows etc …

All sky X-ray Image with MAXI 1 orbit scan 21 week day (96 min)

All sky X-ray Image with MAXI 1 orbit scan 21 week day (96 min)

Data flow of MAXI Data relay satellite NASA MSFC ISS 50 -70% of data

Data flow of MAXI Data relay satellite NASA MSFC ISS 50 -70% of data is transferred in real time Alert MAXI Transient JAXA Internet Public Quick Follow up !!

Summary l l l Ø Ø MAXI is an all sky X-ray monitor on

Summary l l l Ø Ø MAXI is an all sky X-ray monitor on the International Space station. MAXI will be launched in 2008, with a mission life of 2 years. MAXI carries two X-ray detectors; GSC (proportional counters) and SSC (CCDs) MAXI has very high sensitivity, to detect more than 1000 X-ray sources, especially AGNs. MAXI alerts X-ray transients almost in real time. We need tight collaborations for quick follow up observation. Please contact me, or the mission leader ; Dr. M. Matsuoka (matsuoka. [email protected] jp)