- Slides: 29
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
What is Geography? Geography is the “study of the earth’s surface; includes people’s responses to topography and climate and soil and vegetation”. v What the Earth looks like. v How people interact with the environment
What Is Human Geography? The study of • How people make places • How we organize space and society • How we interact with each other in places and across space • How we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region, and world
What Are Geographic Questions? • The spatial arrangement of places and phenomena (human and physical) – How are things organized on Earth? – How do they appear on the landscape? – Where? Why? So what? • No place “untouched by human hands” or activity • Human organization of communities, nations, networks • Establishment of political, economic, religious, cultural systems
Spatial Distribution • Spatial distribution and pattern • Processes that create and sustain a distribution Example: Map of Cholera Victims in London’s Soho District in 1854 Patterns of victim’s homes and water pump locations key to the source of the disease
Diffusion • The process of the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas • Factors that slow or prevent diffusion – Time-distance decay – Cultural barriers
Types of Diffusion • Expansion diffusion: Idea or innovation spreading outward from the hearth – Contagious: Spreads to next available person – Hierarchical: Spreads to most linked people or places first – Stimulus: Promotes local experiment or change
Types of Diffusion • Relocation diffusion: Movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant locale Kenya Paris, France
The Five Themes of Geography How Do We View the World Around Us?
What are the Five Themes of Geography? The Five Themes of Geography are categories that scientists use to study Earth’s features: Location Place Region Movement Human. Environmental Interaction
The theme of LOCATION answers the question: “Where is it? ” It describes where a place is on Earth. There are two kinds of location: Absolute location: – The exact location of a place on Earth. Relative location: – Location of a place when compared to other places.
Location • Absolute location – Precise location using a coordinate system – Latitude and longitude most common (forming the global grid) – Measured by geographic positioning systems (GPS) • Relative location – Location in relation to something else – Changes over time with changing circumstances
Location continued. . . Absolute location: – The exact location of a place on Earth. Examples: – Degrees of latitude and longitude on a globe or map. – Address of a house or building. • The Latitude & Longitude coordinates of Michigan is: 44. 3148443 N , 85. 60236429999998 W • This is Michigan’s absolute location on a map of the Earth.
Location continued. . . Relative location: – The location of a place in relation to other places. • Usually described by: – Direction (North, South, East, West) – Landmarks that are nearby – Distance to or from another place Examples: – Our school on Laban, and approximately 1 mile from the Santa Ana Star Center.
The theme PLACE answers the question: “What is it like there? ” A place is often known by its own special characteristics. • Characteristics are special traits or qualities that a place can have. – Types of characteristics for Place: • Human • Physical
Place continued. . . Human Characteristics: • The main customs, languages, and beliefs of the people in a certain place. • Special traditions or holidays • Clothing styles • Political ideals • Architecture (how buildings are made)
Place continued. . . Physical Characteristics: • • • Mountains, plains Oceans, rivers, lakes Climate (hot, cold, humid, dry) Types of animals that live there What types of plants grow there.
Place continued… Sense of place: Infusing a place with meaning and emotion Perception of place: Belief or understanding of what a place is like, often based on books, movies, stories, or pictures
Perception of Place Where Pennsylvanian students prefer to live Where Californian students prefer to live
Regions Scientists divide the Earth’s land into sections, called Regions, based on certain traits those sections share. Regions may be created based on: Same Climate (weather trends) Location (where it is on a map) Languages & Cultures of the people Landforms (mountains or plains, wetlands or desert) Examples: North America/South America (based on location on the map) Latin America (primarily Spanish speaking countries)
Regions continued… Regional Map of the United States
Regions continued… Formal region: Defined by a common characteristic, whether physical or cultural, present throughout ex. , German-speaking region of Europe Functional region: Defined by a set of social, political, or economic activities or interactions ex. , an urban area, city and suburbs
Regions continued… Perceptual Region: Ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define an area of “sameness” or “connectedness”
The theme of MOVEMENT helps us understand how we connect with, and depend on, other regions, cultures, and people in the world. Movement explores where different resources are located, the people that use them, and how they are transported to locations all over the earth’s surface.
Movement continued… How are people, goods, information and ideas moved from place to place? ? People/Goods Trucks/Cars Planes Trains/Buses Boats Information Telephones Computers (email, internet) Mail Ideas (How trends and fads move from place to place. ) Magazines/Books Radio Television
Movement continued… Spatial interaction: The interconnectedness between places, depending upon: • Distance • Accessibility • Connectivity
The theme HUMAN-ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS looks at how people interact with their surroundings. People depend on their environment. We depend on the land (soil) to grow food. We depend on rivers and streams for drinking water & or transporting goods. People modify (change) the environment. We pave roads to travel on. We clear land to build houses & buildings on. People adapt to their environment. We wear lighter clothing in the summer (warm/hot) and wear heavier clothing in the winter (cold).
Human-Environmental Interaction continued… There are consequences as well as benefits to the actions we take in interacting with our environment: Positive: – More interaction between people of different cultures Negative: – Faster use of the Earth’s natural resources. – Air pollution – Global warming
Globalization A set of processes that are • Increasing interactions • Deepening relationships • Heightening interdependence without regard to country borders A set of outcomes that are • Unevenly distributed • Varying across scales • Differently manifested throughout the world Impact of individual, regional, national scales on processes and outcomes of globalization