- Slides: 39
Introduction to Horticulture
Horticulture Word first used in 1600’s n Comes from two Latin words n n Hortus “Garden” Cultura “Cultivation” Horticulture means “cultivated garden” or “culture of garden plants” n NOW MUCH MORE…
Life Sciences n Biology is the branch of science that deals with both plant and animal organisms and life processes. n n Zoology is the part of biology that deals with animals. Botany is the part of biology that deals with plants.
Horticulture n The science and practice of growing, processing and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.
Agronomy n The science and practice of growing field crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn and soybeans.
Branches of Horticulture n Olericulture n n Pomology n n The growing and study of fruits and nuts. Viticulture n n The growing and study of vegetables. The growing and study of grapes or vines. Floriculture n The growing and study of flowers.
Branches of Horticulture n Greenhouse Management n n The growing and study of plants in greenhouses. Turfgrass Management n The growing and study of turfgrasses. This includes home, municipal, and commercial lawns; sports turf maintenance; highway rights-of-way; and seed and sod production.
Branches of Horticulture n Nursery Management n n The growing and study of trees and shrubs that are produced primarily for landscape purposes. Arboriculture n n n The growing and study of trees. Known as silviculture in forestry. Synonymous with urban forestry.
Branches of Horticulture n Landscape Horticulture n n The application of design and horticultural principles to placement and care of plants in the landscape. Interiorscaping n The application of design and horticultural principles to placement and care of plants in indoor environments.
Branches of Horticulture n Horticultural Therapy n The use of horticultural plants and methods as therapeutic tools with disabled and disadvantaged people.
Hypothesize - TPS Where did horticulture begin? n Where will the history of horticulture originate? n Who invented it? n
History of Horticulture n “Garden of Eden” n n Romanticized garden of paradise. Ultimate goal throughout history.
History of Horticulture n Prehistoric people were primarily…. n n Hunters and gatherers. Collected seeds, fruits, and nuts.
History of Horticulture n Primitive people began to study plants. n n n Is it edible? Does eating it modify well-being? Does it taste good? Can it used to keep me warm? As fuel? As clothing? Is it useful to combat pain? Disease?
History of Horticulture n When were plants first cultivated? n n Neolithic Age (7000 – 10000 years ago) First farmers were women!!!!
History of Horticulture n By 3000 B. C. in Egypt n n n Land preparation Irrigation Pruning
History of Horticulture n Meanwhile in Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Assyria…. . n n This system kept 10, 000 square miles under cultivation…. . n n Irrigation canals lined with burnt brick and sealed with asphalt joints. Which fed 15, 000 people Cultivated roses, figs, dates, grapes, and olives.
History of Horticulture n n n Hanging Gardens of Babylon Built by Nebuchadnezzar. One of 7 Wonders of the Ancient World
History of Horticulture n Eventually people began asking questions such as…. . n How do they grow? n How do they reproduce? n How are they constructed? n How are they nourished? n How are they related to one another? n How are traits passed from one generation to the next?
History of Horticulture n Meanwhile, back in America…… n The Pre-Incas were cultivating maize (corn)
Hypothesize - TPS What other crops were Native American’s growing?
History of Horticulture n Other Indian crops included…… n n n Potatoes Sweet potatoes Peppers Squash Tomatoes Cocoa
History of Horticulture n The use of plant products eventually led to physicians, pharmacists, and scientists.
History of Horticulture n Theophrastus n n n 1 st scientific horticulturist Student of Plato and Aristotle Wrote the books History of Plants and The Causes of Plants.
History of Horticulture n History of Plants n n n Morphology of roots, flowers, and leaves. Anatomical features such as bark, pith, fibers, and vessels. The Causes of Plants n n n Relationship of weather, soils, and agricultural practices. Importance of seeds Value of grafting Tastes and flagrances of plants Death of plants
History of Horticulture n Dioscorides n n n Early Christian Era Wrote about the medicinal uses of plants Proposed ideas about the relationship of plants
History of Horticulture n Middle Ages n n n Little advancement in horticulture Arabs (established botanical gardens) Scientific advances of Greeks and Romans were preserved in monasteries.
History of Horticulture n Renaissance n n n Rebirth of energetic attention to scientific discovery. Taxonomy, morphology, and anatomy branches of botany began to grow. More and more plants were discovered due to exploration which required a system of classification.
History of Horticulture n Linnaeus (1707 -1778) n n n Swedish botanist. Developed binomial classification scheme for plants. Based on their sexual or flowering parts. Basis for all classification systems today. Built upon the work of the Greeks, especially Dioscorides.
History of Horticulture n As the Renaissance evolved…… n Creation of formal Gardens n n Versailles Belvedere in Vienna
History of Horticulture n n Improvements in fruit, nut, and vegetable production. Influx of new plants from “the colonies”. n Some of these plants became mainstays of European diets.
Horticulture in America n When the Europeans arrived they brought seeds, cuttings, and plants. n n Orchards were established Crops brought to America n n n Oranges Wheat Cabbage
Horticulture in America n Early horticulturists in America n n John Bartram George Washington Thomas Jefferson John Chapman n aka. Johnny Appleseed
Horticulture in America n New life in horticulture n n n Morrill Act of 1862. Established land-grant universities. Encouraged the growth of agricultural knowledge.
Horticulture in America Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858 -1954) n “Father of American Horticulture” n Educated at Michigan Agricultural College n n n Present Day Michigan State University Then was a professor at Michigan Agricultural College and at Cornell University.
Horticulture in America Established the 1 st horticulture department n Prodigious Writer n n Hortus n n Taxonomic index of horticultural plants. Cyclopedia of Horticulture n Cultural and taxonomic information of plants.
Horticulture in America n Established the Bailey Hortorium. n n “things of the garden” Established the (ASHS) American Society of Horticulture Science in 1903.
Modern Day Horticulture n n n New Cultivars Plant-Water Relationships Temperature Light Plant Nutrition n n The Rhizosphere Integrated Pest Management Plant Growth Regulators Mechanization Post Harvest Factors