Introduction to Embedded Systems Objectives Introduction to embedded

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Introduction to Embedded Systems

Introduction to Embedded Systems

Objectives • • Introduction to embedded systems Embedded system components • • Hardware Software

Objectives • • Introduction to embedded systems Embedded system components • • Hardware Software Embedded system programming Hardware Description Language (HDL) Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 2

Contents • • Introduction to embedded systems Software engineering Computer architecture Operating systems Digital

Contents • • Introduction to embedded systems Software engineering Computer architecture Operating systems Digital systems Programming practice Theory for practical works Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 3

Contents • • • Lab: Software programming tools Introduction to hardware systhesis Lab: External

Contents • • • Lab: Software programming tools Introduction to hardware systhesis Lab: External interface Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 4

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 5

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 5

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 6

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 6

More examples Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 7

More examples Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 7

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 8

Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 8

Slide credit S. Kowalewski Aachen University Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 9

Slide credit S. Kowalewski Aachen University Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 9

Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 10

Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 10

Definition n “Any sort of device which includes a programmable computer but itself is

Definition n “Any sort of device which includes a programmable computer but itself is not intended to be a general-purpose computer” n Wayne Wolf Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 11

Definition Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 12

Definition Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 12

Embedded systems overview n n Computing systems are everywhere Most of us think of

Embedded systems overview n n Computing systems are everywhere Most of us think of “desktop” computers – – n PC’s Laptops Mainframes Servers But there’s another type of computing system – Far more common. . . Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 13

Embedded systems overview n Embedded computing systems – Computing systems embedded within electronic devices

Embedded systems overview n Embedded computing systems – Computing systems embedded within electronic devices – Hard to define. Nearly any computing system other than a desktop computer – Billions of units produced yearly, versus millions of desktop units – Perhaps 50 per household and per automobile Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Computers are in here. . . and here. . . and even here. . . Lots more of these, though they cost a lot less each. Setha Pan-ngum 14

A “short list” of embedded systems Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic

A “short list” of embedded systems Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cell-phone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Curbside check-in systems Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic instruments Electronic toys/games Factory control Fax machines Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems Life-support systems Medical testing systems Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switches/routers On-board navigation Pagers Photocopiers Point-of-sale systems Portable video games Printers Satellite phones Scanners Smart ovens/dishwashers Speech recognizers Stereo systems Teleconferencing systems Televisions Temperature controllers Theft tracking systems TV set-top boxes VCR’s, DVD players Video game consoles Video phones Washers and dryers And the list goes on and on Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 15

How many do we use? n Average middle-class American home has 40 to 50

How many do we use? n Average middle-class American home has 40 to 50 embedded processors in it – Microwave, washer, dryer, dishwasher, TV, VCR, stereo, hair dryer, coffee maker, remote control, humidifier, heater, toys, etc. n Luxury cars have over 60 embedded processors – Brakes, steering, windows, locks, ignition, dashboard displays, transmission, mirrors, etc. n Personal computers have over 10 embedded processors – Graphics accelerator, mouse, keyboard, hard-drive, CDROM, bus interface, network card, etc. - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 16

Types of Embedded Systems Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha

Types of Embedded Systems Slide credit P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 18

Types of Embedded Systems Slide credit S. Kowalewski Aachen University Introduction to Embedded Systems

Types of Embedded Systems Slide credit S. Kowalewski Aachen University Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 19

Typical Embedded Systems n Are designed to observed (through sensors) and control something (through

Typical Embedded Systems n Are designed to observed (through sensors) and control something (through actuators) E. g. air condition senses room temperature and maintains it at set temperature via thermostat. Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 20

Embedded System Block Diagram Control System Bus Processor (Output) Motor/Light Observe Temperature Sensor (Input)

Embedded System Block Diagram Control System Bus Processor (Output) Motor/Light Observe Temperature Sensor (Input) mem Slide credit Y Williams, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 21

Processors Microprocessors for PCs n Embedded processors or Microcontrollers for embedded systems n –

Processors Microprocessors for PCs n Embedded processors or Microcontrollers for embedded systems n – Often with lower clock speeds – Integrated with memory and – I/O devices e. g. A/D D/A PWM CAN – Higher environmental specs Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 22

Microcontrollers dominates processor market Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 23

Microcontrollers dominates processor market Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 23

There are so many microcontrollers in the world Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

There are so many microcontrollers in the world Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 24

Types of Embedded Processors n Computational micros (32 - or 64 -bit datapaths) –

Types of Embedded Processors n Computational micros (32 - or 64 -bit datapaths) – CPU of workstations, PCs, or high-end portable devices (PDAs) – x 86, PA-RISC, Power. PC, SPARC, etc. n Embedded general purpose micros (32 -bit datapaths) – Designed for a wide range of embedded applications – Often scaled-down version of computational micros – ARM, Power. PC, MIPS, x 86, 68 K, etc. n Microcontrollers (4 -, 8 -, or 16 -bit datapaths) – Integrate processing unit, memory, I/O buses, and peripherals – Often low-cost, high-volume devices n Domain-specific processors (datapath size varies greatly) – Designed for a particular application domain – Digital signal processors, multimedia processors, graphics processors, network processors, security processors, etc. Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 25

Processor Sales Data Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

Processor Sales Data Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 26

Processor Market n n n 2001 processor market by volume: – Computational micros: 2%

Processor Market n n n 2001 processor market by volume: – Computational micros: 2% – Embedded general-purpose micros: 11% – DSPs: 10% – Microcontrollers: 80% 2001 processor market by revenue: – Computational micros: 51% – Embedded general-purpose micros: 8% – DSPs: 13% – Microcontrollers: 28% Higher growth expected for embedded micros, DSPs, and microcontrollers Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 27

Growing Demand n Embedded processors account for – Over 97% of total processors sold

Growing Demand n Embedded processors account for – Over 97% of total processors sold – Over 60% of total sales from processors n Sales expected to increase by roughly 15% each year Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 28

Moore’s Law Slide credit – W Fornaciari Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 29

Moore’s Law Slide credit – W Fornaciari Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 29

Number of Transistors on Chips Slide credit – T Givargis Introduction to Embedded Systems

Number of Transistors on Chips Slide credit – T Givargis Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 30

Graphical illustration of Moore’s law 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 10,

Graphical illustration of Moore’s law 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 10, 000 transistors 150, 000 transistors Leading edge chip in 1981 Leading edge chip in 2002 Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 31

Some common characteristics of embedded systems n Single-functioned – Executes a single program, repeatedly

Some common characteristics of embedded systems n Single-functioned – Executes a single program, repeatedly n Tightly-constrained – Low cost, low power, small, fast, etc. n Reactive and real-time – Continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment – Must compute certain results in real-time without delay Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 32

Characteristics of Embedded Systems n n n Application-specific functionality – specialized for one class

Characteristics of Embedded Systems n n n Application-specific functionality – specialized for one class of applications Deadline constrained operation – system may have to perform its function(s) within specific time periods to achieve successful results Resource challenged – systems typically are configured with a modest set of resources to meet the performance objectives Power efficient – many systems are battery-powered and must conserve power to maximize the usable life of the system. Form factor – many systems are light weight and low volume to be used as components in host systems Manufacturable – usually small and inexpensive to manufacture based on the size and low complexity of the hardware. Slide credit Y William, GWU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 33

Design with focus on Application Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded

Design with focus on Application Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 34

Design Constraints Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

Design Constraints Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 35

Design Challenges n Does it really work? – Is the specification correct? – Does

Design Challenges n Does it really work? – Is the specification correct? – Does the implementation meet the spec? – How do we test for real-time characteristics? – How do we test on real data? n How do we work on the system? – Observability, controllability? – What is our development platform? Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU n More importantly – optimising design metrics!! Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 36

Design Metrics • Common metrics • Unit cost: the monetary cost of manufacturing each

Design Metrics • Common metrics • Unit cost: the monetary cost of manufacturing each copy of the system, excluding NRE cost • NRE cost (Non-Recurring Engineering cost): The one-time monetary cost of designing the system • • Size: the physical space required by the system Performance: the execution time or throughput of the system Power: the amount of power consumed by the system Flexibility: the ability to change the functionality of the system without incurring heavy NRE cost Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 37

Design Metrics • Common metrics (continued) • Time-to-prototype: the time needed to build a

Design Metrics • Common metrics (continued) • Time-to-prototype: the time needed to build a working version of the system • Time-to-market: the time required to develop a system to the point that it can be released and sold to customers • Maintainability: the ability to modify the system after its initial release • Correctness, safety, many more Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 38

Trade-off in Design Metrics n Power Performance Size NRE cost Expertise with both software

Trade-off in Design Metrics n Power Performance Size NRE cost Expertise with both software and hardware is needed to optimize design metrics – Not just a hardware or software expert, as is common – A designer must be comfortable with various technologies in order to choose the best for a given application and constraints Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 39

Time-to-market: a demanding design metric n Revenues ($) n Time required to develop a

Time-to-market: a demanding design metric n Revenues ($) n Time required to develop a product to the point it can be sold to customers Market window – Period during which the product would have highest sales n Time (months) n Average time-to-market constraint is about 8 months Delays can be costly Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 40

Losses due to delayed market entry n – Product life = 2 W, peak

Losses due to delayed market entry n – Product life = 2 W, peak at W – Time of market entry defines a triangle, representing market penetration – Triangle area equals revenue Revenues ($) Peak revenue from delayed entry On-time Market fall Market rise Delayed D On-time entry Delayed entry n W 2 W Time Introduction to Embedded Systems Simplified revenue model Loss – The difference between the on-time and delayed triangle areas Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction Setha Pan-ngum 41

Other Design Considerations n Dependability – Reliability: probability of system working correctly provided that

Other Design Considerations n Dependability – Reliability: probability of system working correctly provided that it worked at time t=0 – Maintainability: probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. [Some systems require no maintenance throughout their operating lives (e. g. electric kettles, computer keyboards), while some may need it such as mobile phones and airplane flight control (software upgrade)] Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 42

Other Design Considerations n Dependability – Availability: probability of system working at time t

Other Design Considerations n Dependability – Availability: probability of system working at time t – Safety – Security: in communication Basically, critical applications have to operate correctly at all time e. g. airplane flight control computer. This includes both hardware and software aspects. Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 43

Example of System Fault 44 Slide credit B. Pahami

Example of System Fault 44 Slide credit B. Pahami

Other Design Considerations n Operating environment Some engine Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in cars

Other Design Considerations n Operating environment Some engine Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in cars are located under the bonnets. So they have to work at high temperature, as well as dusty and wet environment. n EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 45

Real-Time Consideration n Correct operation of real-time systems means: – Working correctly (functionally correct)

Real-Time Consideration n Correct operation of real-time systems means: – Working correctly (functionally correct) – Producing outputs in time! n i. e. correct result at the right time Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 46

Hard Real-time System designed to meet all deadlines n A missed deadline is a

Hard Real-time System designed to meet all deadlines n A missed deadline is a design flaw n For examples: ABS brake, nuclear reactor monitoring system n System hardware (over) designed for worstcase performance n System software rigorously tested n Formal proofs used to guarantee timing correctness n Slide credit – T Givargis Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 47

Firm Real-time n System designed to meet all deadlines, but occasional missed deadline is

Firm Real-time n System designed to meet all deadlines, but occasional missed deadline is allowed – Sometimes statistically quantified (e. g. 5% misses) For examples: multimedia systems n System hardware designed for average case performance n System software tested under average (ideal) conditions n Slide credit – T Givargis Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 48

Soft Real-time n System designed to meet as many deadlines as possible – Best

Soft Real-time n System designed to meet as many deadlines as possible – Best effort to complete within specified time, but may be late For examples: network switch or router n System hardware designed for average case performance n System software tested under averaged (ideal) conditions n Slide credit – T Givargis Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 49

Real-time Systems Deadlines Slide taken from J. J Lukkien Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha

Real-time Systems Deadlines Slide taken from J. J Lukkien Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 50

Levels of System Design requirements specification architecture component design system integration Introduction to Embedded

Levels of System Design requirements specification architecture component design system integration Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 51

Traditional Embedded System Design Approach Decide on the hardware n Give the chip to

Traditional Embedded System Design Approach Decide on the hardware n Give the chip to the software people. n Software programmer must make software ‘fit’ on the chip and only use that hardware’s capabilities. n Slide credit - W. Mc. Umber, MSU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 52

Problems with Increased Complexity Systems are becoming more and more complex. n Harder to

Problems with Increased Complexity Systems are becoming more and more complex. n Harder to think about total design. n Harder to fix ‘bugs. ’ n Harder to maintain systems over time. n Therefore, the traditional development process has to change, n Slide credit - W. Mc. Umber, MSU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 53

Design with Time Constraint n In embedded electronics, the total design cycle must decrease.

Design with Time Constraint n In embedded electronics, the total design cycle must decrease. n Historically, design for automotive electronic systems takes 3 -5 years to develop. n Must be reduced to a 1 -3 year development cycle. n Must still be reliable and safe. B. Wilkie, R. Frank and J. Suchyta - Motorola Semiconductor Products Sectors, ‘Silicon or Software: The Foundation of Automotive Electronics’, IEEE Vehicular Tech. , August 95. Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 54

Possible Ways to Do Need to keep design process abstract for a longer period

Possible Ways to Do Need to keep design process abstract for a longer period of time. n Decomposable hierarchy (object-oriented). n Reuse previous designs: n – When a design changes, reuse similar sections. – Don’t throw away last year’s design and start from scratch! n Automated verification systems. Slide credit - W. Mc. Umber, MSU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 55

Levels of Embedded System Design Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems

Levels of Embedded System Design Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 56

Design Abstraction Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 57

Design Abstraction Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 57

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 58

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 58

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 59

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 59

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 60

Abstraction Levels Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 60

Abstraction Level Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 61

Abstraction Level Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 61

Hardware vs Software Many functions can be done by software on a general purpose

Hardware vs Software Many functions can be done by software on a general purpose microprocessor OR by hardware on an application specific ICs (ASICs) n For examples: game console graphic, PWM, PID control n Leads to Hardware/Software Co-design concept n Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 62

Hardware or Software? n Where to place functionality? – ex: A Sort algorithm »

Hardware or Software? n Where to place functionality? – ex: A Sort algorithm » Faster in hardware, but more expensive. » More flexible in software but slower. » Other examples? n Must be able to explore these various trade-offs: – – Cost. Speed. Reliability. Form (size, weight, and power constraints. ) Slide credit - W. Mc. Umber, MSU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 63

Hardware vs Software Power/Performance Workstations Personal Computers FFT Processors MPEG Processors FIR Processors Embedded

Hardware vs Software Power/Performance Workstations Personal Computers FFT Processors MPEG Processors FIR Processors Embedded Application-Specific Processors Graphics Processors DSP Processors Network Processors General-Purpose Processors Embedded Domain-Specific Processors Programmability and Flexibility Slide credit - Mike Schulte Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 64

Hardware vs Software Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

Hardware vs Software Slide credit – Ingo Sander Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 65

Microcessor technology n Processors vary in their customization for the problem at hand Desired

Microcessor technology n Processors vary in their customization for the problem at hand Desired functionality General-purpose processor total = 0 for i = 1 to N loop total += M[i] end loop Application-specific processor Single-purpose processor Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 66

General-purpose processors n Programmable device used in a variety of applications – Also known

General-purpose processors n Programmable device used in a variety of applications – Also known as “microprocessor” n Features – Program memory – General datapath with large register file and general ALU n User benefits – Low time-to-market and NRE costs – High flexibility n “Pentium” the most well-known, but there are hundreds of others Controller Datapath Control logic and State register Register file IR PC Program memory General ALU Data memory Assembly code for: total = 0 for i =1 to … Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 67

Single-purpose processors n Digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program – a. k.

Single-purpose processors n Digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program – a. k. a. coprocessor, accelerator or peripheral n Features – Contains only the components needed to execute a single program – No program memory n Controller Datapath Control logic index total State register + Data memory Benefits – Fast – Low power – Small size Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 68 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

Application-specific processors n Programmable processor optimized for a particular class of applications having common

Application-specific processors n Programmable processor optimized for a particular class of applications having common characteristics – Compromise between general-purpose and single-purpose processors n Datapath Control logic and State register Registers IR PC Features – Program memory – Optimized datapath – Special functional units n Controller Benefits Program memory Custom ALU Data memory Assembly code for: total = 0 for i =1 to … – Some flexibility, good performance, size and power § DSP ����������� Slide credit Vahid/Givargis, Embedded Systems Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, 2000 69 Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

FPGA Architecture Programmable switch at wiring intersection (credit: www. wikipedia. com) FPGA layout with

FPGA Architecture Programmable switch at wiring intersection (credit: www. wikipedia. com) FPGA layout with Configurable Logic Blocks (CLB) and I/O Blocks (IOB) (credit: Katz’s Contemporary Logic Design) Typical CLB (credit: www. wikipedia. com) Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 70

n Highly constrained products tend to use application specific processors – Many mobile phones

n Highly constrained products tend to use application specific processors – Many mobile phones (power&size constrained) contain ARM chips – Hi-Fi (high performance&time constrained) contain DSP chips Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 71

Software Costs Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum

Software Costs Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 72

Disciplines Used in Embedded System Design Slide credit – R Gupta, UC Irvine Introduction

Disciplines Used in Embedded System Design Slide credit – R Gupta, UC Irvine Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 73

Trends in Embedded Systems Slide credit – R Gupta, UC Irvine Introduction to Embedded

Trends in Embedded Systems Slide credit – R Gupta, UC Irvine Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 74

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 75

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 76

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha

Future Embedded Systems Slide credit – P Koopman, CMU Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 77

Observations on Future Embedded Systems More complexity (people expect more functions and higher performance

Observations on Future Embedded Systems More complexity (people expect more functions and higher performance from their electronic products) n This leads to more complex software n Which requires better design process n More importantly, thorough testing for safety critical systems (diagnostics codes of engine ECUs is half of its total software codes) n Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 78

Research in Embedded Systems • • • Hardware – to improve performance (sensors and

Research in Embedded Systems • • • Hardware – to improve performance (sensors and actuators), verification, etc. Software – reusability, testing, verification, OS, etc. Network – higher connectivity between systems (e. g. smart homes link many systems together, standardised protocols, etc. Security – protection against attacks Design – improved methodology, more automation, formal verification Introduction to Embedded Systems Setha Pan-ngum 79