Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato

  • Slides: 53
Download presentation
Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato Lecture Eight The Formation of Daoism

Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato Lecture Eight The Formation of Daoism and the Book of Laozi 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」 台灣 2. 5版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 2. 5 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

Contents of Today’s Lecture 1/2 n (1) The Origin of Philosophical Daoism n (2)

Contents of Today’s Lecture 1/2 n (1) The Origin of Philosophical Daoism n (2) The Main Arguments in the Book of Laozi and the Book of Zhuangzi : n similarities and differences n (3) On the text and its author(s) n (4) Main Ideas and arguments

Contents of Today’s Lecture 2/2 n (4) Significance in the Warring States intellectual history

Contents of Today’s Lecture 2/2 n (4) Significance in the Warring States intellectual history n (a) The first “truly” philosophical treatise in the Chinese Intellectual history (prof. Chen Guuying) n (b) It helped the formation of “the other side” of intellectual attitude in Chinese history n → cf. recluese n (c) Yet, at the same time, it has become the most cherished guidebook for statecraft, of which “strategic stance” shares considerable congeniality with Sunzi’s The Art of War of (Sunzibingfa 孫子兵法)

Tian Pian’s dialogue with King of Qi (King Xuan? ) n Tian Pian persuaded

Tian Pian’s dialogue with King of Qi (King Xuan? ) n Tian Pian persuaded the Qi king with the method of the Way. n The king of Qi commented on [Tian Pian’s theory]. He said: “The area I possess is the state of Qi. I hope to hear about the rule of Qi. ” n Tian Pian answered: “My words enable you to attain [orderly] government without involving yourself in your government. It is as if you could obtain timber out of nothing. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

Tian Pian’s dialogue with King of Qi (King Xuan? ) n I hope that

Tian Pian’s dialogue with King of Qi (King Xuan? ) n I hope that you will be able to obtain [orderly] government of Qi spontaneously. I will explain [the essence of my theory] with plain examples or with a broad array of facts [I collected]. How can I limit my theory to explaining the government of the state of Qi! Every process of transformation which responds to [environmental] demands has its manifestation. If one is in accordance with the natural essence [of things] and allows these things to work spontaneously for him, nothing is attained inappropriately. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Mind

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Mind training

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Cosmogony Ontology (nothing) National

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Cosmogony Ontology (nothing) National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Yang Zhu’s Protection of every parts of a body

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Yang Zhu’s Protection of every parts of a body Control of desire Unmovable mind oblivion in sitting Consmogony: Supreme oneness Constancy Ontology:Tian Pian’s conception of Dao and Evenness National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Yang Zhu’s Protection of every parts of a body

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Yang Zhu’s Protection of every parts of a body Control of desire Unmovable mind oblivion in sitting Philosophical system of the Book of Laozi and the Book of Zhuangzi Consmogony: Supreme oneness Constancy National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Ontology:Tian Pian’s conception of Dao and Evenness

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Cosmogony Ontology (nothing) National

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Cosmogony Ontology (nothing) National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Concerning the ability of

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Concerning the ability of human beings, the function of language, standard of value and ethics Cosmogony National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Ontology (nothing)

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Concerning the ability of

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training Concerning the ability of human beings, the function of language, standard of value and ethics Cosmogony National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Ontology (nothing)

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training a fundamental doubt Cosmogony

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training a fundamental doubt Cosmogony National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Ontology (nothing)

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism 養生思想 心術論 宇宙生成論 存在論 (無) a fundamental doubt National

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism 養生思想 心術論 宇宙生成論 存在論 (無) a fundamental doubt National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism 養生思想 心術論 a fundamental doubt + Inference by paradoxical

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism 養生思想 心術論 a fundamental doubt + Inference by paradoxical way 宇宙生成論 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 存在論 (無)

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training n Mixed in a

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of self Mind training n Mixed in a philosophical n system Cosmogony National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Ontology (nothing)

The Establishment of Philosophical Daoism

The Establishment of Philosophical Daoism

The Establishment of Philosophical Daoism

The Establishment of Philosophical Daoism

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of body Consmogony Mind training Ontology a fundamental

The Origin of Philosophical Daoism Nourishment of body Consmogony Mind training Ontology a fundamental doubt plus Inference by paradoxical way The Establishment of Philosophical Daoism National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

The main arguments in the Philosophy in the Laozi and Zhuangzi n (1) Both

The main arguments in the Philosophy in the Laozi and Zhuangzi n (1) Both present the Concept of Dao : The origin of universe and the master of the world, which cannot be known, nor be spoken by any language n (2) Both presuppose that the world should be in the process of “change (bianhua 變化)” and all living creatures are transient in such process. n (3) The Zhuangzi attempts to demonstrate the sheer contrast between infinite and omnipotent power of Heaven (tian 天) and minute and vain existence of human beings. n (4) The articulation of the concept of nothingness (wu 無) and non-action (wuwei 無為)

The main arguments in the Philosophy in the Laozi and Zhuangzi n (5) The

The main arguments in the Philosophy in the Laozi and Zhuangzi n (5) The Laozi admires maternal power as the source of procreation and the condition of the existence of things. n (6) The Zhuangzi argues that everything including human beings constitute the inseparable oneness. n (7) The Zhuangzi cherishes life, yet does not cling to it. n (8) The Zhuangzi claims that in order to reach the aforementioned realm, a person should involve him/herself into body/mind training.

The Image of Laozi as a person

The Image of Laozi as a person

The Anecdote: Confucius asked Laozi about Rituals and propriety (li 禮) n Confucius visited

The Anecdote: Confucius asked Laozi about Rituals and propriety (li 禮) n Confucius visited the state of Zhou, met Laozi. Confucius asked Laozi about Rituals and Propriety. Laozi answered: “Exclude your arrogance and greed. Your aggressive character and greedy will do not help you. ” Confucius told his students, saying: “When I met Laozi, It was my sincere feeling that It is not until today that I met the person who are really like a dragon. n From “the Biography of Lao Dan” National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

Life (cited from the Biographies of Laozi) n Laozi cultivated Dao and virtue, and

Life (cited from the Biographies of Laozi) n Laozi cultivated Dao and virtue, and his learning was devoted to self-effacement and not having fame. He lived in Zhou for a long time; witnessing the decline of Zhou, he departed. When he reached the northwest border then separating China from the outside world, Yin Xi, the official in charge of the border pass, asked that he put his teachings into writing. The result was a book consisting of some five thousand Chinese characters, divided into two parts, which discusses “the meaning of Dao and virtue. ” Thereafter, Laozi left; no one knew where he had gone n (quoted from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, slightly altered) This work is from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/laozi/, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of: • Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 • The "Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Open. Course. Ware 2009 (http: //www. centerforsocialmedia. org/sites/default/files/10 -305 -OCW-Oct 29. pdf)" by A Committee of Practitioners of Open. Course. Ware in the U. S. The contents are based on Section 107 of the 1976 U. S. Copyright Act

Suspicion on “historical” Laozi n (1) Sima Qian enumerated three names who could be

Suspicion on “historical” Laozi n (1) Sima Qian enumerated three names who could be identified as the author of the Laozi n http: //www. xysa. com/xysafz/sj/t-063. htm n Li Er, 李耳 n Laolaizi of the state of Chu 楚人 老萊子 n The Zhou Scriber, Lao Dan 周史 老儋 n Cf. Sima Qian recorded that the nine generation’s offsprings lived during mid-Han Period. If this was the case, the person Laozi should have lived during mid-Warring States period.

The textual structure n The text consists 5635 (815 characters) words. n It consists

The textual structure n The text consists 5635 (815 characters) words. n It consists of 81 Chapters n It divides into two parts: n The former part (Chps. 1 - 37) has been called “The Canon of the Way” and the latter (Chps. 38 -81) “Canon of Virtue (or Procreative Power)”. n Thus, the whole text has been also called Daodejing 道德經, namely, The Canon of Way and Virtue

Three Kinds of excavated text of the Laozi, or Daodejing n The Guodian 郭店

Three Kinds of excavated text of the Laozi, or Daodejing n The Guodian 郭店 version of the Laozi is the oldest text (buried in ca 300 BCE) n Mawandui 馬王堆 version is the one which was transcribed in the early Han period and buried in 168 BCE, whose contents is basically identical to extant text, yet the “Canon of the Virtue” precedes “the Canon of the Way. ” n In 2009 Peking university has acquired a very complete (99% of the whole characters have been reserved) bamboo text of the Laozi. However, this version has not been open to public yet.

The oldest version of the Laozi

The oldest version of the Laozi

《郭店老子》 The Guodian Laozi (ca. 300 BCE) http: //www. shodo. co. jp/blog/hidai/

《郭店老子》 The Guodian Laozi (ca. 300 BCE) http: //www. shodo. co. jp/blog/hidai/

馬王堆漢墓《老子》 http: //www. shodo. co. jp/blog/hidai/ n Mawangdui text of the Laozi, which was

馬王堆漢墓《老子》 http: //www. shodo. co. jp/blog/hidai/ n Mawangdui text of the Laozi, which was transcribed in silk in ca. 200 BCE. n cf. There is not any archeological evidences that both Guodian and Mawangdui version of text have been called under the name of the Laozi when they were circulated.

Historical evidences on the formation of the text n The Guodian bamboo manuscripts contains

Historical evidences on the formation of the text n The Guodian bamboo manuscripts contains 2/5 of the whole extant text with different chapter order n Xunzi, a late Warring States thinker, states that “Laozi has insight on how to yield, yet not on how to exhibit (one’s ability)” : 老子有見於詘,無見於信。 n The Book of Hanfeizi includes two commentarial chapters on selected of passages. So far, these “chapters can be regarded as the first commentaries to the Laozi. They have also demonstrated the fact that the authors of these chapters was believed that the text which we call the Laozi was written by Laozi.

Some characteristics in the way of argument n No proper (unique) noun, except for

Some characteristics in the way of argument n No proper (unique) noun, except for hinting present “Yangzi River. ” n A large parts of contents are written in verse. n It includes maxims. n →→Is the Book of Laozi no more than a collection of proverbial sayings? n It contains ample example paradoxical expressions and metaphors.

“A Double structure” n The words “wu 吾” or “wo 我” (both denote “I”

“A Double structure” n The words “wu 吾” or “wo 我” (both denote “I” or “my”) is used as subject. n →→ Readers sense a very strong personality of a “author” who has “written” this text. n The term “shengren 聖人” (sage or wiseman) appears 31 times. n →→Since the text does not associate the image of sage with any concrete name of historical personages, the realm of sagehood are easy to be connected to the realm of self. In such a way, the Book of Laozi show its double structured nature: private aspect (sage as undesignated “I”) and public aspect (sage as a ruler of a country or even All-under. Heaven).

Proverbial statement and argumentative statement n A number of chapters consist of “proverbial statement”

Proverbial statement and argumentative statement n A number of chapters consist of “proverbial statement” and “argumentative statement” through the connection of term “gu 故” or “shiyi 是以” (therefore). n The term “therefore” is followed by the statement which starts “the sage…”

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour’s five hues from the eyes their sight

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour’s five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music’s five notes the ears as deaf can make; The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste; The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men’s conduct will to evil change. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly, and not the (insatiable longing of the) eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. This work comes from Chinese Text Project, http: //ctext. org/dao-de-jing, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music’s five notes the ears as deaf can make; The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste; The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men‘s conduct will to evil change. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly, and not the (insatiable longing of the) eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. This work comes from Chinese Text Project, http: //ctext. org/dao-de-jing, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music’s five notes the ears as deaf can make; The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste; The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men‘s conduct will to evil change. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly, and not the (insatiable longing of the) Proverbial part eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. This work comes from Chinese Text Project, http: //ctext. org/dao-de-jing, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight

An example from Chapter 12 n Colour‘s five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music’s five notes the ears as deaf can make; argumentative part by The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste; The “philosophical” author or chariot course, and the wild hunting waste Make a final compiler of the text mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men‘s conduct will to evil change. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly, and not the (insatiable longing of the) eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. This work comes from Chinese Text Project, http: //ctext. org/dao-de-jing, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET

Textual structure and possible author n Such structural characteristics can make readers associate the

Textual structure and possible author n Such structural characteristics can make readers associate the author (I) with the image of the sage. n On this basis, the present text provides a integrated image of single author in spite of an appearance of a miscellany of proverbs at first sight. n The final compiler or its author of present text could have been a person who lived during mid-late Warring States period.

Main aruguments n Disbelief in language n A “reverse” of widely accepted value as

Main aruguments n Disbelief in language n A “reverse” of widely accepted value as “good” and “beauty” n Paradoxical articulation of the Image of the Way n Adoption of procreative and naturally growing power for attaining socio-political order (cf. nonaction)

Main aruguments n Approval of “original state”, n “femaleness” “weakness” and “softness” as a

Main aruguments n Approval of “original state”, n “femaleness” “weakness” and “softness” as a means of attaining longevity and the protect of life n Double modes of “knowing”

The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi n The

The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi n The level of principle n The person who can reach the power of generating n The person who can follow the rule of revolution of Heaven and providence of earth n The person who can control the change of the world n The level of adoption n The person who can nourish one own body and heart/mind n The person who can stand at the position of humble part. n The person who can rule without verbal ordinance.

The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi n The

The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi n The level of principle n The person who can reach the power of generating n The person who can follow the rule of revolution of Heaven and providence of earth n The person who can control the change of the world n The level of adoption n The person who can nourish one own body and heart/mind n The person who can stand at the position of humble part. n The person who can rule without verbal ordinance. The condition for the ruling the world

Questions n (1) All denial or all affirmative? n (2) For Statecraft or for

Questions n (1) All denial or all affirmative? n (2) For Statecraft or for recluse ? n (3) For anarchical rule or a worldwide Empire n (4) Philosophy or mysticism ?

Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Thank you very much! Lecture Eight The Formation of

Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Thank you very much! Lecture Eight The Formation of Daoism and the Book of Laozi

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source 田駢以道術說齊[王]…因性任物而莫不 宜當。 劉安《淮南子‧道應訓》 頁5 -6 National Taiwan University

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source 田駢以道術說齊[王]…因性任物而莫不 宜當。 劉安《淮南子‧道應訓》 頁5 -6 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato a fundamental 宇宙

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato a fundamental 宇宙 存在 doubt 生成 論 ( 論 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 無) 養生思 a fundamental 心術論 想 dobut + Inference by 宇宙生 存在論 paradoxical way 成論 (無) Nourishm ent of self Mind training Cosmogo ny Ontology (nothing) National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Wiki Zhang Lu

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Wiki Zhang Lu (張路) http: //zh. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Zhang_Lu. Laozi_Riding_an_Ox. jpg 2011/11/17 visited 老子者…莫知其所終。 司馬遷《史記‧老子韓非列傳》 Confucius 2000, http: //www. confucius 2000. com/tao/kzlz. htm in public domain under section 30 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 頁25 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

Copyright Declaration Work 頁26 Licensing Author/ Source This work is from Stanford Encyclopedia of

Copyright Declaration Work 頁26 Licensing Author/ Source This work is from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/laozi/, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of: • Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 • The "Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Open. Course. Ware 2009 (http: //www. centerforsocialmedia. org/sites/default/files/10 -305 -OCW-Oct 29. pdf)" by A Committee of Practitioners of Open. Course. Ware in the U. S. The contents are based on Section 107 of the 1976 U. S. Copyright Act 天来書院, http: //www. shodo. co. jp/blog/hidai/2008/10/2300. html in public domain under section 30 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 老子有見於詘,無見於信 荀子《荀子‧天論》

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source 五色令人目盲…故去彼取此。 老子《道德經第十二章》 頁38 -41 This work comes from

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/ Source 五色令人目盲…故去彼取此。 老子《道德經第十二章》 頁38 -41 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, http: //ctext. org/dao-de-jing , edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET