- Slides: 15
INTRODUCTION The energy sources themselves fall into various categories. There are the “traditional” fuels such as fuel wood, crop wastes, and animal dung. Since human beings first discovered the benefits of lighting fires for heating, cooking, lighting, and making simple artifacts, traditional fuels have been used for these purposes. In many countries they still are: indeed in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia traditional fuels account for the major part of residential energy use. However, it is also the case that other fuels—such as natural seepages of petroleum or tar, and easily accessible outcrops or seams of coal—have long been exploited by human beings as well (in some instances for tens of thousands of years).
Global Fuel Mix in 1990 This chart indicates the breakdown of contributions of the fossil fuels, “traditional” renewable such as firewood, and “new” renewable such as solar power and modern coppicing, to the total global energy supply in the 1990 s. The domination of fossil fuels over the largely untapped nuclear reserves, and undeveloped new renewable, is immediately apparent.
Wind Turbine Generators Wind turbine generators are increasingly used as alternative sources of electricity generation. Although much less harmful to the environment than other sources of energy, they are not always practical because they require average wind speeds of at least 21 km/h (13 mph). This wind farm on the San Gorgonian Mountain Pass in California’s San Bernardino Mountains contains over 4, 000 separate windmills and provides enough electricity to power the entire Coachella Valley in southern California.
Solar Home In this solar home in Corrales, New Mexico, United States, a flat plate solar collector (lower right) provides energy to heat water pumped by the windmill. The water is stored in large drums at the side of the home.
Nuclear reactor The hole at the far end of the blue cavity is the core of a nuclear reactor. The long tube in the middle of the core is the fuel assembly, which consists of a bundle of long metal tubes filled with uranium pellets. This photo was taken while the spent fuel assembly was being removed.
Formation of coal Millions of years ago forest were berried under the layer of earth. later due to great pressure and heat this forest were converted in to solid carbon matter , which is know as coal.
Uses of coal Coal is used as a source of energy in many chemical industries. Coal is also a raw material. it is to produce tar, naphthalene, ammonia gas, benzene etc. coal is used to manufacture synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber, plastic, explosives, dyes & insecticides.
Types of coal % of carbon content 1 ANTHRACITE 2 BITUMINOUS COAL 3 LIGNITE 4 PEAT 92% 90% 40 -60% BELOW 40%
Generating electricity by conversion of the energy of running water.
Petroleum or mineral oil is an organic matter mined from the earth. It is liquid , consisting of hydro carbons in different proportions. It is believed that petroleum as been formed by decomposition of plants and animals that existed in the ancient ocean.
HUMAN RESOURCE It is the most important resource than any other resource. Human power, number, intelligence and efficiency are together called human resource. Man, with his intelligence converts raw materials into valuable goods and fulfill his wants.
v. Wind Turbine Generators v. Solar Home v. Nuclear reactor v. FORMATION OF COAL v. USES OF COAL v. TYPES OF COAL v. GENERATING ELETRICITY BY OF CONVERSION OF THE water. PETROLUM v. HUMAN RESOURCE