- Slides: 56
Introduction Section 1: Australia and New Zealand Section 2: Oceania Visual Summary
The geography and climates of Australia and Oceania have drawn people from great distances. Migrations of people from island to island made it a varied and fascinating region. Later, European and Japanese colonization reshaped the region in the 1800 s and 1900 s. Today, international travel has made the region more accessible than ever.
Section 1: Australia and New Zealand The characteristics and distribution of human populations affect physical and human systems. Migration and settlement patterns have influenced the cultures and landscape of Australia and New Zealand.
Section 2: Oceania The characteristics and distribution of cultures influence human systems. Indigenous and Western cultures have shaped the societies of Oceania.
Australia and New Zealand Migration and settlement patterns have influenced the cultures and landscape of Australia and New Zealand.
Australia and New Zealand • clan • boomerang • dominion • Strine • establishing • structure
Australia and New Zealand A. Tasmania B. Sydney C. Melbourne D. Auckland E. Christchurch F. Wellington
Australia and New Zealand Which European country has influenced Australia and New Zealand? A. France B. Sweden C. Great Britain D. Germany A. B. C. D. A B C D
Population Patterns Indigenous peoples and British settlers influenced the look of modern-day Australia and New Zealand. • The people: – Aborigines—Australia’s earliest people – Maori – Europeans – Asians Australia and Oceania: Population Density
Population Patterns (cont. ) • Density and distribution: – Most people in Australia and New Zealand live in cities or towns along the temperate coasts.
Does Australia encourage or discourage immigrants? A. Encourage B. Discourage A. A B. B
History and Government Together, but not always in agreement, indigenous people and British settlers shaped the course of history in Australia and New Zealand. • Early peoples: – Aborigines – Maori
History and Government (cont. ) • European exploration and settlement: – From the 1500 s to the 1700 s, Europeans of various nationalities explored this area. – 1788– 1850 s—Great Britain used Australia as a colony for convicts. – The arrival of the Europeans had a disastrous impact on the Aborigines and Maori. – Early 1900 s—both countries gain independence from Great Britain.
History and Government (cont. ) • Government type: – a dominion Patterns of European Settlement
What famous sailor claimed Australia for Great Britain? A. John Smith B. John Cook C. Ponce de Leon D. Christopher Columbus A. B. C. D. A B C D
Culture Indigenous cultures and European traditions shaped the present-day cultures of Australia and New Zealand. • Education—free, compulsory education; high literacy rates • Health care—quality health care and medical services • Indigenous peoples do not receive many of these benefits though.
Culture (cont. ) • Language—English • Religion—Christianity • The arts—early peoples used art, music, dance, and storytelling to pass on knowledge; canoe making, basketry, tattooing and woodcarving English in Australia
Which percent are literacy rates in Australia and New Zealand? A. Over 68% B. Over 88% C. Over 90% D. Over 99% A. B. C. D. A B C D
Oceania Indigenous and Western cultures have shaped the societies of Oceania.
Oceania • horticulture • trust territory • subsistence farming • pidgin English • generation • temporary
Oceania A. Melanesia B. Papua New Guinea C. Micronesia D. Kiribati E. Guam F. Mariana Islands G. Polynesia
Oceania H. Samoa I. Tonga J. Tuvalu K. Tahiti L. Fiji
Oceania Are you familiar with the culture of Oceania? A. Very familiar B. Somewhat familiar C. Not familiar A. A B. B C. C
Population Patterns Migration of people among the islands in Oceania has shaped life on the islands today. • Three major groups of people: – Melanesians – Micronesians – Polynesians – (Asian communities also live in this area)
Population Patterns (cont. ) • Density and distribution: – A high percentage of the islands are unsuited for human habitation. – Papua New Guinea has the most people. – Nauru—the world’s smallest republic—has only 10, 000 people.
Why is Oceania’s population growing at a high average rate? A. Immigration B. Its young population C. Low death rate D. Tourism A. B. C. D. A B C D
History and Government Outside influences on indigenous cultures have shaped Oceania’s societies. • Early Migrations – Asian migrants settled Oceania in family groups along island coasts. Australia and Oceania: Colonies, 1900
History and Government (cont. ) • European colonization: – European’s developed commercial plantations for growing tropical products. – Late 1800 s/early 1900 s—Britain, France, Germany, Spain, and the U. S. struggled for control of various islands. – The two world wars also changed the course of Oceania’s history. – Since the 1970 s most of these islands have been independent.
Which of the Pacific islands was the first to gain independence? A. Samoa B. Fiji C. Palau D. Iwo Jima A. B. C. D. A B C D
Culture Today’s Oceanic societies have been shaped by European cultural traditions as well as indigenous practices. • Sports and leisure—surfing, outrigger canoe racing, spear fishing • Language— 1, 200 spoken in Oceania alone; French, pidgin English
Culture (cont. ) • Religion—various forms of Christianity • Education—varying literacy rates, ranging from 57%– 93% • Health care—unevenly distributed
Which island accepts shell money in exchange for goods at the markets? A. New Britain B. Papua New Guinea C. Guam D. Fiji A. B. C. D. A B C D
People and Culture • Australia and Oceania have very distinct cultures. • Australia and New Zealand are overwhelmingly made up of people with European heritage. The Aboriginal and Maori peoples are minorities in their countries. • The peoples of Oceania settled into three major groups—Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians.
Settlement and Independence • The islands of Oceania were first settled by peoples from Asia. • European explorers and settlers arrived in the 1500 s. European powers quickly colonized the region and extracted its resources. • Australia and New Zealand gained their independence in the early 1900 s. The rest of Oceania gradually gained independence after World War II.
Government and Society • Australia and New Zealand both have a parliamentary system of government that closely resembles that of Great Britain. • The Aborigines and Maori have won greater recognition of their cultures. • Oceania has a variety of governing styles. Some countries have monarchies, while others are democratic republics.
clan tribal community or large group of people related to one another
boomerang curved throwing stick used by Aborigines for hunting in Australia
dominion a partially self-governing country with close ties to another country
Strine colloquial English spoken in Australia
horticulture the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, and plants
trust territory region placed by United Nations under temporary political and economic control of another country after World War II
subsistence farming producing just enough food for a family or a village to survive
pidgin English a dialect mixing English and a local language
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