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What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. “Psychology” has its roots in the Greek words of “psyche, ” or mind, and “-ology, ” or a field of study. ”
What psychology is NOT! 1. it’s not reading your mind (no jedi mind tricks here!) 2. You won’t learn how to control someone’s mind either! 3. Mr. Bruins is NOT a therapist! Or a psychologist! Or a psychiatrist!
� “Psychology has a long past but only a short history. ” ◦Hermann Ebbinghaus History of Psychology
PRESCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY, CON. Grecian philosophers Socrates & Plato believed that the mind and body are separate; mind lives on after death; knowledge exist upon birth Aristotle believed that mind/soul is NOT separable from the body and that knowledge comes from experiences stored in memory
Origins Continued… • Rene Descartes first to pose dualismidea that a link existed between the mind and body – Nativism- is the view that certain skills or abilities are 'native' or hard wired into the brain at birth. -Rene Descartes (French) agreed with Socrates & Plato; believed that the mind/soul and body communicated; the brain fluid contains “animal spirits” which flows through the body (1596 -1650)
A Change in Perspective For hundreds of years medieval Christian churches felt the human mind, like that of God, was an unsolvable mystery. In the 17 th C. the French philosopher Rene Descartes argued that human sensations and behaviors were based on activity in the nervous system. Rene Descartes 1596 -1650
Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates? A) The mind should be studied empirically. B) The mind is an illusion produced by the brain. C) The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies. D) The mind is made up of knowledge that is a result of our experiences E) The mind results from biological processes.
John Locke (1632 -1704) – An Essay Concerning Human Understanding – Tabula rasa – Empiricism • Knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
Psychology Becomes a Science Despite Descartes arguments and scientific breakthroughs at the time, psychology didn’t become a recognized science until the mid 1800 s.
Modern Psychology Rooted in History Modern psychology developed from several conflicting ideas including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
Psychological Science Is Born – Wilhelm Wundt • (1832 -1920) • Established modern psychology as a formal field of study – 1 st “Psychologist” – Developed the first psychology lab/experiment • Measuring reaction time
Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt (Voont) was the first to declare himself a psychologist. He believed in structuralism. Wilhelm Wundt 1832 -1929
Structuralism: devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thoughtlooking for the elements of conscious experience. Structuralism relies on introspection, or the process of reporting one’s own conscious mental experiences. What would be the strengths/weaknesses of introspection?
• E. B. Titchner- brought Wundt’s psychology to U. S. – Structuralism-study the basic elements that make up human mental experiences – Introspection • Looking inward- analyzing immediate sensations and how they related to one another. • Results varied and were unreliable • For example…
• Using structuralism and the idea of introspection I would need to analyze everyone’s immediate sensations. • Did this picture make you smile? • Did this picture make you want to cry? • Once again with structuralism, results varied and were unreliable
Critics of Wundt and Structuralism Like most new theories, people began to dispute and refute structuralism. William James (the first U. S. psychologist) believed that psychology should look at function and not just structure. William James 1842 -1910
Functionalism • Functionalism- study how animals and people adapt to their environments. . – Influenced by Charles Darwin • William James- father of psychology in U. S. – Taught first psychology class at Harvard University in 1875. • Why does the brain think? Why does the nose smell? • Wrote “The Principles of Psychology” – Took 12 years! 1842 -1910
Functionalism- A theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment. James thought that psychology should explain how people adapted-or failed to adapt-to everyday life outside the laboratory. The parts of the functionalist view of psychology
James’ Functionalism James’ criticism of Wundt’s structuralism was that it was boring and inaccurate because it was only done in the laboratory. James wanted to see how people functioned in everyday life, not just in contrived situations. Also he believed that mental process were not static. He described them as a “stream of consciousness. ”
The Salt Metaphor • Functionalism • - William James Uses Preserve food Makes food taste better • Structuralism • Edward Bradford Titchener -it’s component parts - Made out of sodium and cholorine - Subjective
The school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by: A) Wilhelm Wundt B) William James C)Rene Descartes D)John Watson E) Sigmund Freud
Other Early Schools of Psychology • Gestalt psychology – Wholes vs. multiple individual elements • You shouldn’t dissect an experience into separate elements to discover truths – instead, look at the ‘whole’ – Max Wertheimer • Phi phenomenon
Autumn by Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1573) How does this painting illustrate Gestalt Psychology? ?
Ladies • Margaret Washburn • Mary Calkins – Denied degree by Harvard in 1895 – First Ph. D 1894, Cornell – First woman president of the APA – The Animal Mindanimal behavior – Renowned memory Between researcher 1996 -2009 Females claimed twothirds of U. S. Psychology Ph. D. s
Psychology Defined 2012 • The definition has evolved over time. *The science of behavior and mental *processes. • Behavior = any action we can observe and record. – Examples: Yelling, smiling, sweating… • Mental Processes = internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior. – Examples: Sensations, perceptions, feelings…
Nature versus Nurture • The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Plato Descartes Darwin Aristotle Locke
Nature versus Nurture • How are humans alike but diverse? • Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially constructed? • Is children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experience? • How are differences in intelligence and personality influenced by heredity and by environment? • Are sexual behaviors more pushed by inner biology or pulled by external incentives?
Psychology vs. Psychiatry is a specialty in the medical field, not a part of psychology. Psychiatrists hold MDs and have specialized training in the treatment of mental and behavioral problems. Psychology is a much broader field which has many different specialties.
4. 2% Elementary and Secondary Schools 6. 3% Business and Government 8. 5% Other 19. 4% Hospitals and Clinics 28. 0% Colleges and Universities 33. 6% Private Practice Psychology’s Early History Psychology’s Modern History Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified Seven Unifying Themes Personal Application
0. 5% Forensic 0. 6% Other 0. 9% Clinical Neuropsychology 5. 2% School 6. 1% Industrial/Organizational 14. 7% Counseling 72. 1% Clinical Psychology’s Early History Psychology’s Modern History Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified Seven Unifying Themes Personal Application