INTRODUCTION Chapter A 2 NORMAL DEVELOPMENT INFANCY CHILDHOOD

  • Slides: 33
Download presentation
INTRODUCTION Chapter A. 2 NORMAL DEVELOPMENT: INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN AND

INTRODUCTION Chapter A. 2 NORMAL DEVELOPMENT: INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Nancy G Guerra, Ariel A Williamson & Beatriz Lucas-Molina Companion Power. Point Presentation Adapted by Uttara Chari & Julie Chilton

The “IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health” is available at the IACAPAP

The “IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health” is available at the IACAPAP website http: //iacapap. org/iacapap-textbook-of-child-andadolescent-mental-health Please note that this book and its companion power point are: - Free and no registration is required to read or download it - This is an open-access publication under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License. According to this, use, distribution and reproduction in any medium are allowed without prior permission provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Outline • Understanding normal development • Milestones –

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Outline • Understanding normal development • Milestones – Cognitive – Linguistic – Social-emotional – Behavioral • Ages & Stages • Domains • Temperament • Attachment • Conclusions

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Defining Normal Development “Average or ‘on-time’ growth based

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Defining Normal Development “Average or ‘on-time’ growth based on the attainment of specific physical, cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional, and behavioral milestones across specific stages” • What is likely • Based on population averages • Historical, cultural, international variations

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Knowledge of Normal Development • • • Experience

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Knowledge of Normal Development • • • Experience Friends Cultural traditions Magazines and books Support networks Internet Guidance counselors Social workers Therapists Physicians

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Key Developmental Principles: • Nature

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Key Developmental Principles: • Nature versus nurture • Developmental timing and plasticity • Sequencing and variation in development • Critical and sensitive periods • Culture and context

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Nature vs Nurture • Genes and biology •

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Nature vs Nurture • Genes and biology • Life experiences: family, school, peer group, community, culture • Recent evidence: interplay of both over time • Family, twin and adoption studies • DNA analyses: Trisomy 21, alcoholism • Environmental factors: parenting styles, socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics • Temperament and intelligence • Non-shared environment

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Developmental Timing and Plasticity • • Sequencing and

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Developmental Timing and Plasticity • • Sequencing and variation Dynamic process Continuous and discontinuous Continuum as normal timeframe Heterogeneous rates within normal Deviation may not be meaningful Malleable traits and skills early on

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Critical and Sensitive Periods • Developmental studies –

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Critical and Sensitive Periods • Developmental studies – Genie, age 13 – Feral children • Optimal windows of opportunity • Critical periods for specific functions – Vision – Language • Sensitive periods when skills easiest to acquire – Second language

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Culture and Context Average population rates vary: •

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Culture and Context Average population rates vary: • Race • Ethnicity • Culture • Historical era • Community • Socioeconomic status Less Variable: • Physical and cognitive domains • Skills and behaviors: cooing, babbling, speech initiation, abstract reasoning

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Age Specific Milestones: • Physical

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Age Specific Milestones: • Physical • Cognitive • Linguistic • Social-emotional • Behavioral Imitation: a quick way of acquiring skills

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Stages of Development Infancy: 0 to 2 years

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Stages of Development Infancy: 0 to 2 years Toddler/Preschool: 2 to 5 years Childhood: 6 to 11 years Adolescence: 11 to 18 years Emerging adulthood: 19 to 29 years

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Domains of Development Cognitive • Internal mental processes

Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Domains of Development Cognitive • Internal mental processes • Thinking and understanding • Larger schemas Linguistic • Communication • Speech patterns • Sentence structure Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Milestones • Relationships • Social norms and customs • Feelings • Following rules and regulating deviance

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Infancy and Early Toddlerhood: 0 -2 years •

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Infancy and Early Toddlerhood: 0 -2 years • Attachment between child and primary caregiver • Rapid changes across ages: – Birth to six months – Seven months to one year – 13 months to 18 months – 19 months to two years Inuit Mother and Baby

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Birth to Six Months Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Birth to Six Months Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction • Differentiation of external stimuli • Recognition of facial expression • Preference for -familiar people -familiar stimuli -face-to-face interactions • Improved memory & attention • Crying to express basic needs • Language precursors • Joint attention Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships • Self-regulation based on regular biological routines • Sleep cycles more predictable • Gaze aversion • Social smile • Multiple displays of emotions • Differences in temperament

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Temperament https: //www. youtube. com/watch? reload=9&v=k. EU-az-Nz. Tc&feature=related

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Temperament https: //www. youtube. com/watch? reload=9&v=k. EU-az-Nz. Tc&feature=related

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 7 Months to 1 Year Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 7 Months to 1 Year Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction • • • Perceptual & sensory capabilities Memory & attention skills Object permanence Point at objects Emergent language skills Learn and respond to name Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships • • Attachment relationships Separation anxiety Stranger wariness Social referencing

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 13 to 18 Months Cognitive/linguistic milestones – Social

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 13 to 18 Months Cognitive/linguistic milestones – Social stimulation & interaction • Expansion of repertoire of earlier cognitive skills -Object permanence -Memory & retrieval: -After the first word (eight-18 months) Social-emotional/behavioral Milestones – Attachment relationships • Self-awareness: Recognition of oneself • First demonstrations of empathy

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 19 Months to 2 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 19 Months to 2 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction • Memory, problem solving & attention: - Action plans - Pretend/make-believe play - Daily life play themes • Advanced linguistic skills: - Two or more words - Replacing parts of a word - Vocabulary growth Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships • • • Use of language to regulate Awareness of others More complex emotions Less separation anxiety Self-control Imitation of others, language use & play based on gender stereotypes

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development Theory of intellectual

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development Theory of intellectual development – Jean Piaget Part 1 (12: 25) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=I 1 JWr 4 G 8 YLM Part 3 (11: 30) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=x 9 n. SC_X gabc Part 2 (13: 05) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? featur e=endscreen&v=Qb 4 TPj 1 pxz. Q&NR=1 Part 4 (4: 49) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. VS a. EHh. OEZY&feature=relmfu

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Late Toddlerhood & Preschool (2 -5 years) •

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Late Toddlerhood & Preschool (2 -5 years) • Caregiver reliance vs independence • Changes in understanding of self & others – – – mental representations problem solving language social-emotional process Behavior • Self reliance San Jose library

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 2 to 5 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Mental Representation

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 2 to 5 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Mental Representation • • • Sociodramatic play Dual representation Explanations & relationships Cognitive scripts Memory of 4 items Private speech Literacy & numeracy skills Vocabulary – 2000 words Complex sentences Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Parental Demands vs Child’s Autonomy • Temper tantrums • Change in aggression • Complex behavioral & emotional expressions • First friendships • Moral beliefs & emotional display • Describes mental states • Gender constancy • Feeding & toileting self • Sexual curiosity & self-exploration

Patterning of temper tantrums (1: 54) https: //www. npr. org/sections/health-shots/2011/12/05/143062378/whats-behind-a-temper-tantrum-scientistsdeconstruct-the-screams

Patterning of temper tantrums (1: 54) https: //www. npr. org/sections/health-shots/2011/12/05/143062378/whats-behind-a-temper-tantrum-scientistsdeconstruct-the-screams

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years • • •

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years • • • More involved in social world Learn skills for later use in adulthood More attuned to cultural norms, rules & laws Shift focus & attention from parents to peers Sense of mastery over academic & social domains Increased interest/involvment with peers

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piaget’s Stages of Intellectual Development Piaget’s stages of

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piaget’s Stages of Intellectual Development Piaget’s stages of intellectual development (6: 18) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TRF 27 F 2 bn-A&feature=related

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years • • •

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years • • • More involved in social world More attuned to cultural norms, rules & laws Shift focus & attention from parents to peers Sense of mastery over academic & social domains Increased interest/involvement with peers Sri Lankan children playing in a beach (Photo: Dhammika Heenpella)

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 6 to 11 years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Information Processing

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 6 to 11 years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Information Processing • • • Selective attention Gist-based memory Automatization Time and space Seriation and object categorization Metacognition Cognitive self-regulation 10000 words Double meanings and metaphors Shading skills Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Self & Others Mastery • Decreased self-esteem • Gender stereotypes, roles, identity • Delayed gratification and impulse control • Emotional regulation • Problem focused or emotioncentered coping • Empathy and perspective taking • Moral views and normative beliefs • Trust and mutual enjoyment • Peer victimization • Sexual/romantic interest

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence (12 -18 years) • Increased attention on peers

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence (12 -18 years) • Increased attention on peers • Increased risk-taking behavior & experimentation • Higher-order cognitive & linguistic skills • Increased moodiness & caregiver conflict • Increased conformity • Preparation for adulthood • Formulation of adult identity

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 12 to 18 Years Cognitive & Linguistic Milestones:

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 12 to 18 Years Cognitive & Linguistic Milestones: Complex Reasoning & Formal Mental Operations • Cognitive self-regulation • Metacognition • Self-consciousness • Cognitive distortions • Imaginary audience • Personal fable • Rational decision-making • Impulsivity • 40, 000 words • Refined grammar • Conversational skills Social Emotional & Behavioral Milestones: Assertion of One’s Identity and Autonomy • Self-esteem & emotional fluctuations • Increased dimensionality of self esteem • Variations in mood & behavior • Peer group conformity • Risky behaviors • Peer victimization • Moral beliefs • Perspective-taking

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Eric Erikson’s stages

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Eric Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development (12: 02) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=577 Gq. QDMX 08&feature=related

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Conclusions • Absence of psychopathology • Important milestones

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Conclusions • Absence of psychopathology • Important milestones in a timely fashion • Context: racial, ethnic, cultural & environmental differences • Use discussions of atypical behavior and normal development to inform conceptualizations

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Other Useful Internet Resources • Palo Alto Medical

Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Other Useful Internet Resources • Palo Alto Medical Foundation (information available in English and Spanish) http: //www. pamf. org/children/common/development/ • Medline Plus: Trusted Health Information for You https: //medlineplus. gov/ency/article/002456. htm • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development https: //www. nichd. nih. gov/ • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https: //www. cdc. gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/index. html • University of Michigan Health System (with videos and information in Spanish) https: //www. mottchildren. org/posts/your-child/developmental-milestones Child Developmental Institute https: //childdevelopmentinfo. com/

IACAPAP Thank You Slide Thank You! Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence

IACAPAP Thank You Slide Thank You! Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence